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Aq32287294

  1. 1. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294 BIM and Basic Challenges Associated with its Definitions, Interpretations and Expectations Behzad Abbasnejad*, Hashem Izadi Moud** *(Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Division of Construction Management, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden) ** (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Division of Construction Management, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden)ABSTRACT The construction industry in recent due to its usefulness in describing objects in detailedyears has incorporated information technology 2D drawings. The basis of this method has remainedwhich serves to facilitate the conceptualization as the core base of professional communication inand realization of construction projects. These construction since eighteenth century. Byefforts have culminated in the development of developing technology and availability of“Building Information Modeling” (BIM), a professional computers that can simulate buildings,process consisting of generating and managing it is possible for construction practitioners to replacedigital renderings of a building‟s functional and their drawings by simulated objects. Buildingphysical features. BIM has attracted widespread Information Modeling (BIM), as a new way ofpopularity recently; however, there is several technical communication in construction, refers tochallenges concerning its definitions and representation of a structure as an object by usingexpectations in early phases of construction computers to simulate buildings. Although the BIMprojects. Evidently different organizations and concept was presented during 1970s due topeople create their own definitions of BIM, based technological constraints, its usability has remainedon the specific way they work with BIM. Thus, it isolated since the mid-1990s. However, technologyis evident that there are differences in the way constraints are removed right now and foster use ofBIM is perceived by both different individuals BIM worldwide.and organizations within the construction By using BIM, the objects are in their 3Dindustry. As a result, it might be difficult to come (3 Dimensional) formats. Objects are defined asup with a common definition of BIM for the parameters and not isolated creatures so changes inentire construction industry. In other words, one object result in changes in other related objectsthere is confusion concerning what BIM is, and automatically. Therefore, there is no need for manywhat BIM is not. This can lead to drawings to describe construction objects – inmisunderstandings concerning expectations from buildings and/or infrastructures projects. In addition,different stakeholders involved in construction making changes in the design phase is eased andprojects where BIM is utilized. Therefore, by there is no need to redesign parts of structures due toreviewing and analyzing current literature in the small changes in other parts. Another advantage ofarea of BIM, the main objective of this paper is using BIM is its transparency. Using BIM assists allto discuss the most common challenges of BIM‟s stakeholders to monitor the project status indefinitions and expectations which hinder the different phases since transparency increases bycomprehensive realization of its benefits in order using BIM because of availability of data for allto increase the awareness of construction stakeholders and project construction and designpractitioners and firms. It is suggested that the team members. Another advantage of BIM whichdefinition of BIM should not be unilateral but has caught attention recently is its capability forrather encompass several key characteristics improving sustainability by modeling energy usagewhich have been attributed to it. of buildings. Through use of geometric and parametric data using computational flow dynamics,Keywords - BIM, BIM challenges, BIM definitions, BIM can be used as main source for modelingBuilding Information Modeling, construction energy usage of buildings. This is a great leap inindustry constructing sustainable buildings. Although, numerous advantages have beenI. INTRODUCTION suggested for use of BIM, there are some minor Traditional method of describing three weaknesses and challenges in using it [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].dimensional objects in two dimensions (2D) was This paper, presents a brief overview of the mostbrought to construction by Gaspard Monge (1799). common challenges in using BIM in order toThis method was the basis for construction drawings stimulate the debate and increase the awareness among construction practitioners and firms. The 287 | P a g e
  2. 2. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294paper seeks to make both theoretical and practical been developed by conducting a massive literaturecontributions in the area of BIM regarding better review, using a case study and guidance formrealization of its benefits and challenges as well as researchers [6] and considered as a reliablemore effective use of it in construction projects. framework for CIC. As mentioned previously, JungBy conducting a comprehensive literature review, and Gibson [6] divided project life cycle to sixthe authors figure out that there are some challenges different phases as Planning, Design, Procurement,in the early phases of BIM implementation in Construction, M & O and Disposal. They enumerateconstruction projects. These challenges are fourteen business functions in their framework (Fig.associated with different definitions, expectations 1).and interpretations of BIM among various involvedindividuals, organizations and stakeholders.Therefore, it is tried to discuss what are thechallenges and differences in definitions,interpretations and expectations in literature andtheir influence on construction firmsII. METHOD This paper is based on the two well-knownframeworks about BIM and CIC. A frameworkwhich is developed by Jung and Gibson [6] ispresented to show the bases of CIC; since thesecond framework, which was developed by Jungand Joo [7] is based on the first framework. It isworth noting that these frameworks share severalsimilarities. So, firstly, around 100 recent publications Fig. 1. Framework of CIC by Jung and Gibson [6]concerning BIM are searched. Then, by reviewingthem, the authors chose about 25 most relevant and The framework of Jung and Gibson [6] isuseful articles. Given the aim of the paper, it was considered as one of the most reliable frameworkstried to utilize the relevant primary and secondary for CIC and is popular among researchers; however,sources relating to BIM. The authors analyze the the authors believe that it may be restricted by a lackpaper in order to distinguish what has been learned of knowledge that was not accessible at the time ofand accomplished in the area of BIM and what still publishing (1999). Moreover, the existence of BIMneeds to be learned and get more attention. In order and its popularity started to increase after 2000,to find articles the following words have been following publishing Jung and Gibson [6] paper.searched in scientific databases: Thus, we try to investigate other frameworks for1. BIM both CIC and BIM in order to assess any element2. BIM challenges that can restrict potential uses of BIM. A later paper3. BIM definitions applies the framework of Jung and Gibson but4. CIC relates it to BIM [7]. It is worth noting that Jung and5. BIM framework Joo [7] made their paper on the bases of Jung and Gibson [6] CIC framework and use it to link BIMIII. LITERATURE REVIEW and CIC and develop a practical framework. Jung This paper aims to discuss early challenges and Joo [7] developed a 3-dimensional BIMrelating to BIM. In order to do this, it would be framework (Fig. 2). It consisted of BIM Technologybeneficial to refer to the bases of CIC (Computer which is further divided to Utilization, Standards,Integrated Construction) - since BIM by its Relation and Property; BIM Perspective, which isdefinitions is a new use of technology in divided to Project, Organization and Industry; andconstruction – and find and study the possible Construction Business Functions that is defined bychallenges related to using BIM in construction. Jung and Gibson [6] earlier.Therefore, authors try to explore bases of CIC which In the following parts, we discuss thewas developed by Jung and Gibson [6] and a challenges connected to BIM briefly and then useframework for implementing BIM that was the CIC and BIM frameworks to explore thedeveloped by Jung and Joo [7]. possible linkage between these challenges and CIC Reference [6] developed a framework for and BIM practical frameworks.CIC as shown in Fig 1. Their framework consists ofthree variables as project life cycle, businessfunctions and IS concern. These variables consistedof six phases for project life cycle, fourteen businessfunctions and four IS concerns. This framework has 288 | P a g e
  3. 3. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294 “Building Information Model or BIM utilizes cutting edge digital technology to establish a computable representation of all the physical and functional characteristics of a facility and its related project/life-cycle information, and it is intended to be a repository of information for the facility owner/operator to use and maintain throughout the life-cycle of a facility.” Another definition of BIM is proposed by Van Nederveen [12] as: “A model of information about a building that comprises complete and sufficient information to support all lifecycle processes and which can be interpreted directly by computer applications. It comprises information about the building itself as well as its components, and comprises information about properties such as function, shape, materialFig. 2. A framework for BIM developed by Jung and processes for the building life cycle”.and Joo [7] With these features, most of BIM users aimed at achieving cost savings and try to includeIV. DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS AND BENEFITS integrated cost modelling, construction sequencing Many scholars have discussed BIM issues and facilities management (FM) capabilities.recently; everyone in project teams elaborates new However, there are many possibilities for differentoutcomes of using BIM. But what BIM means in the interpretations of BIM as a result of various distinctmind of project team members? In a project team, in definitions of BIM. For example, some may argueorder to establish future safe communication, that BIM should be regarded as the entire processmembers should agree upon using specific technical exchanging, reusing and controlling projectterms, software and sometimes even procedures. information being generated during the lifecycle ofWhat is really the definition of BIM? Is there any buildings while others consider it as just a simpleunique definition for BIM so that project team information modeling. Some even can just describemembers can refer to it? Does everyone refer to a it as a 3D digital representation of the physicalspecific method of drawing when talking about building while another group may discuss the ideaBIM? Does everybody pointing to specific dominant of creating a single repository of information aboutsoftware when they refer to BIM? Different the building which can be of use throughout itsdefinitions of BIM would be a challenging issue in lifecycle and, finally, some focus on theprojects if its importance remains quarantined. collaborative aspects of BIM (see Table. 1). There are several inconsistencies and Moreover, some users consider BIM as an advancedmisinterpretations in definitions of BIM [8]. The Computer Aided Design (CAD), while others take itdefinitions could vary depending on the user‟s point into account as a series of models for distinctof view, type of organization and their particular elements of a project. The most obvious differencework. For example, from a design perspective, BIM of BIM in comparison with CAD is that CADis defined as the digital representation of the depicts construction elements with lines that definephysical and functional characteristics of a project a structures geometry; however, BIM creates each[9], which refers to the process and technologies element of the structure as an „intelligent‟ objectused to create a BIM model. From the construction containing a broad array of information in additionpoint of view, BIM is considered as the to its physical dimensions. Each element in the BIMdevelopment and use of a computer software model model well relates to other objects and to the designto simulate the construction and operation of a in general [13].faculty [10]. However, for facility managers, BIM BIM is being used in a number of differentmay be a powerful new tool to enhance a building‟s levels of maturity. As the first level, it is used asperformance and manage operations more unmanaged CAD, in 2D, with paper or electronicefficiently throughout a building‟s life. It is worth paper data exchange. In the next level it maynoting that the latest use of BIM in facility utilized as managed CAD in 2D or 3D format with amanagement is a new approach in using BIM which collaborative tool providing a common datacalls for further researches. But how BIM is defined environment with a standardized approach to databy different organizations and/or institutes? structure and format. In this case, commercial dataThe National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) will be managed by standalone finance and costdefines BIM as the following [11]: management packages with no integration. The next stage BIM is used as a managed 3D environment 289 | P a g e
  4. 4. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294held in separate discipline “BIM” tools with data [15] exchanging, reusing,attached. Commercial data will be managed by controllingenterprise resource planning software and integrated information generatedby proprietary interfaces or bespoke middleware. during the lifecycle ofThis level of BIM may utilise 4D construction building throughsequencing and/or 5D cost information. And in the object orientedhighest level, it is considered as fully integrated and artificial intelligentcollaborative processes enabled by “web services” information modeland compliant with emerging Industry Foundation ComprehensivelyClass (IFC) standards. This level of BIM will utilize Gang control all information4D construction sequencing, 5D cost information [16] and organization,and 6D project lifecycle management information. duties and processes needed from the stageTable 1. Examples of different definitions of of planning forBIM. construction to itsScholar/Organization Definition cycle of design, Comprises complete construction, and sufficient maintenance andVan Nederveen information to support demolition[12] all lifecycle processes and which can be It will take years before the majority of interpreted directly by construction firms make such full use of BIM computer systems. In the meantime, professional team applications. It members, contractors, and sub-contractors with comprises information design responsibility will find themselves at various about the building stages of BIM preparedness. There will be a small itself as well as its gap between some and a huge gap between others. components, and Different stages of BIM development will require comprises information different approaches; there will be no “one size about properties such fitting all” during the transition to fully integrated as function, shape, BIM. material and processes Considering these definitions between for the building life different project organizations, participants and cycle stakeholders; having unique approach, Provide parametric understanding and interpretation to BIM benefitsNIBS based model to reflect may seem impossible. There is a wide range of[11] insertion, extraction, possible uses of BIM in construction projects. At updating or altering one extreme, architects and engineers can utilize physical, functional BIM basically to produce better quality design characteristics of documents without providing the digital model to building at each steps any other party. Similarly, contractors can as needed throughout separately create models for estimating, fabricating the processes to or simulating construction without sharing the support cooperation models. Used in such limited ways, BIM may not among related parties reach to its full potential. At the other end of the Comprehensively spectrum, BIM can provide a collaborativeCheol and Shik manage and use framework among all project parties, allowing a[14] information on all better way of data sharing concerning what is being steps from planning to designed and how it will be constructed [1, 2, 3, 4, expiry through 5]. exchanging and According to Eastman et al. [17], effective sharing information use of BIM may bring several remarkable impacts according to projects, on a project outcome through improved design, processes focusing on improved constructability, and quicker project interoperation of completion, saving time and money both for the information through owner and for the project team. BIM is also the entire lifecycle of emerging as the solution to reduce waste and construction inefficiency in building design and construction. Refers to the entire Eastman et al. [17] argue that there are differentGSA processes of uses of BIM in construction. These include 3D, 4D, 290 | P a g e
  5. 5. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-2945D and 6D BIM which can be described as the accurately and rapidly generate an array of essentialfollowings: estimating information, such as materials‟ quantities and costs, size and area estimates. As changes are3D – Model: made, estimating information automatically adjusts,1. Model walkthroughs. These provide a great allowing greater contractor productivity.visualization tool enabling designers and contractors 2. „Real Time‟ cost estimating. In a BIM modelto work together to identify and resolve problems cost data can be added to each object enabling thewith the help of the model before walking on-site. model to automatically calculate a rough estimate of2. Clash detection. In the traditional way, most material costs. This provides a valuable tool forclashes are identified when the contractor receives designers, enabling them to conduct valuethe design drawings and everyone is on-site and engineering. However, it should be noted thatworking. With clashes being detected so late, delay overall project pricing would still require theis caused and decisions need to be made very expertise of a cost estimator.quickly in order to provide a solution. BIM enables 6D – Facilities Management (FM)potential problems to be identified early in the 1. Lifecycle management. Where a model isdesign phase and resolved before construction created by the designer and updated throughout thebegins. construction phase, it will have the capacity to3. Project visualization. Simple schedule become an „as built‟ model, which also can besimulation can show the owner what the building delivered to the owner.will look like as construction progresses. This 2. Data Capture. Sensors can feed back andprovides a very useful and successful marketing tool record data relevant to the operation phase of afor all those involved in a project. building, enabling BIM to be used to model and4. Virtual mock-up models. Often on large evaluate energy efficiency, monitor a buildings lifeprojects the owner will request physical mock-up cycle costs and optimize its cost efficiency. It alsomodels so they can visualize, better understand and enables the owner to evaluate the cost-effectivenessmake decisions about the aesthetics and the of any proposed upgrades.functionality of part of the project. BIM modellingenables virtual mock-ups to be made and tested for a V. HOW BIM CAN BE RESTRICTED BYfraction of the cost. DIFFERENT EXPECTATIONS?5. Prefabrication. The level of construction By having a comprehensive view oninformation in a BIM model means that empirical studies that have been conducted aboutprefabrication can be utilized with greater assurance BIM, it is clear that not only our perceptions fromthat prefabricated components will fit once on-site. BIM defers greatly from each other, but also ourAs a result, more construction work can be expectations from BIM defers due to many reasons;performed offsite, cost efficiently, in controlled having different definitions or unfamiliarity with allfactory conditions and then efficiently installed. BIM‟s potential uses may be a result of having different expectations. These different expectations4D – Time may hinder the full use of BIM abilities; therefore,1. Construction planning and management. BIM‟s potential abilities hide under the users‟BIM models provide a means of verifying site expectations and only some parts of it may be used.logistics by including tools to visually depict the This phenomenon was named as “BIMspace utilization of the job site throughout a Consideration” [6].projects construction. Tools can further be used toenhance the planning and monitoring of health and VI. RESTRICTING BIM BY PROJECT UNITSsafety precautions needed on-site as the project BIM became a widespread tool forprogresses. communication recently, but what are the common2. Schedule visualization. By watching the communicating challenges while differentschedule visualization, project members will be able stakeholders and project team members use BIM?to make decisions based upon multiple sources of The very first challenge arises when project owneraccurate real-time information. Within the BIM make first decision in using BIM in different phasesmodel a chart can be used to show the critical path of project and establish ways of communicationand visually show the dependency of some between project team members‟. It is arguable thatsequences on others. As the design is changed, the role of establishing first contacts and makingadvanced BIM models will be able to automatically decisions on ways of communication are not alwaysidentify those changes that will affect the critical dedicated to the owner, though it is argued thatpath and indicate the corresponding impact on the usually owner, a party which is pointed by owner oroverall delivery of the project. a party which is made prior agreements with owner5D – Cost in order to participate in project - for instance, as an1. Quantity Take-offs. The model produced by investor - will make these decisions later. In thisBIM includes information that allows a contractor to paper by using the term “owner” authors point the 291 | P a g e
  6. 6. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294party which is responsible for making a project advantages. Social BIM refers to a manner in whichteams and ways of communication between team information used by one party – stakeholder – ismembers [18]. shared among other stakeholders openly. A Failing in establishing first agreements on flourishing advantage of social BIM is transparencycommunication procedures, ways and methods have which eases communication between differentbeen known as one of the most common causes of stakeholders. Intimate BIM, as another approach tochallenges between team members. It has also been application of BIM in projects, is distinguishedknown as a famous communication barrier in project when all main parties of a project share risks andteams that hardens communication and acts as a rewards in projects. This situation is likely tocommunication barrier in project teams [18, 19]. If a happen when gain sharing approach is used asproject team fails to decide on the communication procurement method for pointing main contractorprocedures, which is a common pitfall in and other project organizations; Hergunsel [21]communication between project teams, another argues that this may be possible through BIM-problem arise in project teams which may not be integrated project delivery. Intimate BIM and socialrelated to different definitions of BIM but may be BIM results in better collaboration in producinglinked to the use-level of BIM and eagerness of drawings and other project documents; hence reducedifferent contractors – or stakeholder – to release time and cost of the project.information to other parties. Although a number ofcauses have been discovered for the hiding VII. DISCUSSIONinformation phenomenon, which is a widespread Having a thorough review on empiricalphenomenon especially in lump-sum contracts; in studies that have been undertaken in the area ofthis paper another aspect of this phenomena will BIM, it is evident that not only our perceptions fromarise, that has a completely different cause, and is BIM defer greatly from one person to another, butconnected with the use-level and lack of first also our expected outcomes of using BIM defers dueagreement in communication ways. to many reasons; having different definitions or It is observed that in some projects unfamiliarity with all BIM‟s potential uses may be acontractors– usually design team contractors – use result of having different expectations. TheseBIM to win the jobs. In this case, BIM is used as a different expectations may hinder full use of BIMprofessional tool only in design phase. Other uses of abilities; therefore, BIM‟s potential abilities hideBIM are ignored in this use. Hollywood BIM is the under the users‟ expectations; therefore, only somebest term to introduce this situation in a project [20, parts of BIM‟s potential may be used. Some Authors21]. Although there should be a number of reasons named this phenomenon as “BIM Consideration”for this kind of minimization that may result in [6]. Authors believe that this shortcoming can belimiting the other uses of BIM, we argue that lack of referred to IS Concerns of Jung and Gibson [6]fixed standards in project documents and/or and/or BIM Technology of Jung and Joo [7]. In thisinappropriate observation – control – from the phenomenon, construction managers may not beowner – or any other party which is responsible for able to understand full potentials of BIM so its usessupervising the work could be the main reason for could be isolated due to misunderstanding of itsthis Hollywoodian use. However, this is only a meanings and uses by top managers.proposed reason and need further investigations by There are various stakeholders that interactscholars. when BIM is utilized. Evidently different Hollywoodian BIM is not the only case that organizations and people create their ownBIM may be restricted by different project definitions of BIM, based on the specific way theyorganization units; lonely BIM is noted as another work with BIM. Thus, it is evident that there aremisuse of BIM which is related to the isolating BIM differences in the way BIM is perceived by bothand its information to only one organization or party different individuals and organizations within thein the project. Vardaro et al.[20] explained this construction industry. As a result, it might beshortcoming as a situation in which BIM is just difficult to come up with a common definition ofpracticed inside only one organization and BIM uses BIM for the entire construction industry. In otherwhich are related to the information sharing are words, as Jongeling [13] emphasizes, there isignored. This situation may happen, for instance, confusion concerning what BIM is, and what BIM iswhen consultancy that is responsible for design uses not. This can lead to misunderstandings concerningBIM as a tool for design but share design drawings expectations from different stakeholders involved inand details in 2D drawings with other stakeholders construction projects where BIM is utilized. The[20, 21]. result is the problem in lack of comprehensive In contrast to the lonely and Hollywoodian realization of BIM benefits. The authors proposeBIMs, “Social BIM” and “Intimate BIM” are that this may result in limited use of BIM. In thisconsidered as two other – and more successful – manner, according to Jung and Joo [7] and Jung anduses of BIM. Social BIM is referred to a more Gibson [6] Business Functions uses of BIM may becollaborative approach to BIM and its useful quarantined only in Safety Management and/R&D 292 | P a g e
  7. 7. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294or any other single project units since project [2] Y. Arayici et al., Technology adoption inorganizations are not believe in BIM„s potentials. the BIM implementation for leanThe last shortcoming which was identified in the architectural practice, Automation inliterature reviewed and explored by the authors Construction, 20(2), 2011, 189-195.refers to differences of BIM‟s expectations among [4] R. Sacks, et al., Visualization of work flowconstruction people. According to Jung and Joo [7] to support lean construction, Journal ofand/or Jung and Gibson [6], discussing this issue Construction Engineering andmay be beneficial. The authors believe that BIM‟s Management, 135(12), 2009, 1307-1315.abilities may be hindered by construction managers [6] Y. Jung and G.E. Gibson, Planning fordue to having divergent attitudes and expectations computer integrated construction, ASCEabout BIM. For instance, some may consider BIM Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,only as a design tool while others use BIM as a main 13 (4), 1999, 217– 225.source of communication between project [7] Y. Jung and M. Joo, Building informationstakeholders. modelling (BIM) framework for practical implementation, Automation inVIII. CONCLUSION Construction 20(2), 2011, 126-133. The literature fails to present a unique andcomprehensive definition of BIM. A relevant and Books:accepted calculation methodology and baseline to [8] F. Jernigan, BIG BIM little BIM (2nd Ed,properly evaluate BIMs benefits have not been 4site Press, Salisbury, Maryland, 2008).established yet. There are mixed perspectives and [9] AIA, The architects handbook ofopinions of the benefits of BIM, creating a general professional practice (New York, Johnmisunderstanding of the expected outcomes. The Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002).frequency and variety of the definitions of BIM [17] C. Eastman, P. Tiecholz,. R. Sacks, and K.illustrate the confusion in defining and quantifying Liston., BIM Handbook (New Jersey: JohnBIM and considering its potential benefits. This Wiley & Sons, 2008).deficiency not only prohibits the collaborate processbetween stakeholders, but it also makes the Chapters in Books:measurement of BIM‟s effectiveness too general [12] S. Van Nederveen, R. Beheshti, and W.and qualitative. Hence, BIM is a very wide concept Gielingh, Modeling Concepts for BIM. (In:with divergent characteristics. J.Underwood, and U.Isikdag, (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Building It is; therefore, important to be precise Information Modeling and Constructionwhen discussing BIM, for instance when specifying Informatics: Concepts and Technologies,requirements regarding BIM in the tender request (Hershey, PA: Information Sciencedocuments. This is important for avoiding Reference, 2009) 1-18.misunderstandings and ensuring that stakeholderscan deliver what has been requested concerning Theses:BIM. Moreover, this paper proposes that the [14] G.H. Cheol, L.M. Shik, Study ondefinition of BIM should not be unilateral but development of construction dutyinstead encompass several key characteristics which integration model through analysis on BIMhave been attributed to it. The study further asserts cases, Collection of Thesis from Koreanthat there is a risk in offering a narrow definition of Architect Academy Seminar, Vol. 27, No.BIM as this primarily makes it more problematic to 1, 2007, pp. 61-64.establish a baseline for comparisons. Subsequently, [16] L. Gang, Key technology for managinga narrow definition makes it difficult, if not building lifecycle Collection of Thesis fromimpossible, to improve BIM uses by means of Korean Architect Academy Seminar, 2006,benchmarking. pp. 145-149. [21] M.F. Hergunsel, Benefits of buildingACKNOWLEDGEMENTS information modeling for constructionThe authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Petra managers and BIM based scheduling.Bosch-Sijtsema for her helpful comments on the Unpublished Thesis, Master of Science inmanuscript. Civil Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2011.REFERENCESJournal Papers: Proceedings Papers: [1] Y. Arayici et al., BIM adoption and [3] R. Sacks, et al., Analysis framework for the implementation for architectural practices, interaction between lean construction and Structural Survey, 29(1), 2011, 7-25. Building Information Modelling. 17th Annual Conference of the International 293 | P a g e
  8. 8. Behzad Abbasnejad, Hashem Izadi Moud / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.287-294 Group for Lean Construction, National [13] R. Jongeling, BIM istället för 2D-CAD i Pingtung University of Science and byggprojekt: En jämförelse mellan dagens Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 2009. byggprocesser baserade på 2D-CAD och[5] S. Mihindu, and Y. Arayici, Digital tillämpningar av BIM. Luleå Tekniska construction through BIM systems will Institut, Luleå,, 2008, pp. 16, 35. drive the Re-engineering of construction [20] M.J. Vardaro, J. Vandezande, W. Sharples, business practices, 12th international J. Mallie, and John A. Rapaport. Weighing conference of Information Visualisation, the Issues on BIM Technology, Interview London, 2008. by Calvin Lee. Zetlin & DeChiara LLP[18] B. Abbasnejad, and H. Izadi Moud, Review. Feb. 2009. Web. May 2010. Leadership Functions and Challenges in <zdlaw.com>. Virtual Teams – A Review Paper, Accepted for oral presentation in Guidelines: International Conference on Management [10] AGC, Contractors guide to BIM, The Technology and Science (ICMTS 2012), Associated General Contractors of Dubai, UAE, August 2012. America, 2006.[19] H. Izadi Moud, and B. Abbasnejad, Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in Project [11] National Institute of Building Sciences Based Organizations, Accepted for oral (NIBS), United States National Building presentation in the 10th International Information Modeling Standard: Version 1 Conference on Knowledge, Economy and – Part 1: Overview, Principles and Management (ICKEM 2012), Istanbul, Methodologies. NIBS, 2007. Turkey, November 2012. [15] GSA Building Information Modeling Guide Series (01- GSA BIM GuideResearch Reports: Overview), 2006. 294 | P a g e

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