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Ag31238244

  1. 1. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244 Performance Analysis Of Effect Of Directional Antennas On Energy In Routing Protocol Dharam Vir*, S.K.Agarwal**, S.A.Imam*** *(Head of Section, Department of Electronics Engineering, YMCA UST, Faridabad, India) ** (Dean & Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering, YMCA UST, Faridabad, India) ***(Astt. Professor, Department of Electronics & Comm. Engineering, JMI, New Delhi, India)ABSTRACT In this paper we have presented an but also as a router that maintains routes to andanalytical model for power-aware, multi-hop forwards data for the other nodes in the networkswireless network nodes equipped with antennas that may not be within wireless transmission range.such as omni directional, steerable and switched Routing in the mobile ad hoc networks facesbeam antennas. Complexity is day by day challenges due to mobility of the nodes a largeincreasing of routing between the nodes because number of nodes, and communication betweenof highly dynamic nature of the mobile ad hoc nodes resource constrained like energy andnetwork results due to frequent change in bandwidth [1][9]. This requires the ad hoc networknetwork topology. However, it may be possible to to have high capability of self-organization andimprove the network Congestion by using maintenance which is fulfilled by utilizingdirectional antennas. To find out which intellectual routing protocol and efficient resourcedirectional antenna gives better performance for management in a distributed manner. The routingmobile ad hoc networks, In this paper, we protocol may generally be categorized three typescompare and analyze different directional such as: Reactive, Proactive and hybrid routingantennas for various routing protocols such as protocol. Reactive type of routing creates routesDSR, OLSR, ZRP which comprise a good mix of only when desired by the source node for examplereactive, proactive and hybrid protocols. To AODV, DSR and DYMO [2]. Table driven routingdetermined the average jitter, average end to end protocols attempt to maintain up to date routingdelay and throughput for application layer and information from each node to every other node inpower consumption between nodes in physical the network for example OLSR, LANMAR[3].layer by using omni- directional, steerable and Hybrid routing is a combination of proactive andswitched beam antennas. We are using Random reactive for example ZRP [4]. Both reactive andwaypoint mobility with rectangular frame in this proactive routing protocols have their advantagessimulation which is done with the QualNet 5.01 and disadvantages in conditions of routing powersimulator. consumption and table size. In this paper we have compared and analysis the reactive proactive andKeywords - Ad hoc network, AODV, DSR, hybrid routing protocols like: DSR,OLSR and ZRPDirectional antenna, QualNet, ZRP on the basis of average jitter, average end to end delay, throughput and power consumption in receiveI. INTRODUCTION transmit and ideal mode using omni-directional, Established wireless communication steerable and switched mode directional antennas.systems employ directional antennas which waste Which may be possible to improve the networkchannel resource by radiating radio frequency node congestion?energy in all directions. Directional antennas The rest of the paper is organized inprovide large coverage area and lower power following structure: Section II presents the relatedconsumption, because of these advantages; work. Section III presents a description of omnidirectional antennas have been adopted in Mobile ad directional, steerable, and switched beam antennahoc networks, cellular network system 2G and 3G. and routing protocols. Section IV presentsComplexities day by day increasing of routing simulation setup and analysis of the results andbetween the nodes because of highly dynamic nature section V contains conclusion of the paper.and bandwidth of the mobile ad hoc network resultsin regular change in network topology. If the II. RELATED WORKSnetworks have a large number of nodes, the In this paper authors have evaluated to findtransmission of routing information will consume out which directional antennas are more beneficialmost of the bandwidth. Nodes in mobile ad-hoc between these omni-directional, steearble andnetwork sharing same random access wireless switched beam to ad hoc network and are essentialchannel and each node function not only as a host to evaluate the effects of directional antennas on the 238 | P a g e
  2. 2. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244performance of various routing protocols DSR, A. Omni-directional AntennaOLSR and ZRP. In this paper we evaluated the An omni-directional antenna [9] schemeperformance of DSR, OLSR and ZRP using may provide more connecting links than adifferent directional antenna and all parameters directional antenna scheme if nodes in a network areselected by simulator [7]. In the ad hoc wireless located within each other’s transmission range.networks, battery power is a very critical resource in However, closely located nodes are very likely tosensor networks. One such aspect nodes are face co-channel interference during simultaneousoperated normally power is provided by batteries. transmission. The number of collisions and packetTherefore energy conserving has become a very drops increases and hence the network performanceimportant goal, for energy conservation different degrades. A directional antenna scheme mayalgorithms have been proposed to realize power provide fewer links in a network. Fewer links mayefficiency during the routing process. Directional seem to cause poor routing performance, but weantennas have been used to reduce transmission believe that using directional antenna schemes canpower as well as to decrease obstruction in the outperform omni-directional antenna schemes. Ournetworks. Author design an energy model for the simulation results support this [11][15]. Omni-use of different directional antenna based scenario in directional antennas radiate energy in all directionsQualNet to find out energy consumption on each for a given transmission power. The range usingnode when data is transmit or receive. omni-directional antennas is lower than when usingThis paper can be concluded from the following directional antennas. Ad-hoc routing algorithmsfour aspects: with omni-directional antennas and fixed Author presents the summary of directional transmission power have an upper bound to theantennas (omni-directional, steerable and switched number of intermediate hops between a pair ofbeam) technology starting from very essential source and destination. Directional antennas mayelements and gives a general overview of operating resolve this problem using the same amount ofprinciple [15]. transmission energy. They can focus beams at We present the current ad hoc MAC narrow angles. This can decrease channelprotocols (IEEE 802.11 family protocols) and three interference of other nodes falling beyond thecategories of ad hoc routing protocols (reactive, transmission angle, increase the transmission rangeproactive and hybrid routing protocols) in detail. We and contribute to bridging voids in a network. Gainpresent one popular routing protocols for each of a directional antenna over its omni-directionalcategory and ignored others. The three routing counterpart depends on how narrow the primaryprotocols are dynamic source routing (DSR), beam (lobe) is. Interference by secondary lobes canOptimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Zone reduce the effective transmission range of theRouting Protocol (ZRP) [14]. primary lobe [11]. We perform the result in the applicationand physical layer when utilizing directional B. Steerable Antennaantennas and reviews several proposed average Steerable Antenna is directional antennasjitter, average end to end delay, total packet receive, and has the ability to direct the beam in a particularand throughput for a comparison of these proposals direction. In Steerable antenna whose major lobefrom technical point of views. can be readily shifted in direction. The beam cannot We investigate the improvement in ad hoc be focused to the specific angle of the receiverrouting and network performance with directional [9][15]. Steerable antenna has a capability to doantennas in power consumption mode routing above mentioned task. Even steerable antennas areprotocols compared with omni-directional antenna, complete setup up of a number of antenna elements.steerable and switched beam antenna for static and Steerable antenna system have a logic combines themobility scenarios through case study which is done antenna elements in such a way that the beam iswith the QualNet simulator[15]. directed towards any given angle. These antennas The Random way point mobility model are also capable to minimize the obstruction frommetric and node pause time in this paper covers the the unwanted nodes. By mixing the antennaclasses of routing protocols like proactive, reactive elements in such a way that main lobe, side lobesand hybrid, which provides valuable direction for and tail lobe is not intended towards the interferer,the performance of all routing protocols under then antenna reduces the interference.various network conditions. C. Switched beam AntennaIII. OVERVIEW OF ANTENNAS In switched beam antennas [15], space is There are two main types of directional divided into a fixed number of equally dividedantenna: mechanically switched and phased array. sectors. Each antenna element transmits a beamEven as both have the desired directional attributes. such that covers one sector. The switched beamIn our simulation we are taking number of antenna is the simplest smart directional antenna.directional antennas as follows. The antenna that explores a number of fixed beams 239 | P a g e
  3. 3. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244in prearranged directions at the antenna site. movement is taking place. DSR has a uniqueSwitched beam antenna base station selects the advantage by virtue of source routing.beam that supports the maximum Signal toInterference and Noise Ratio (SINR) [13]. As the B. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR)mobile terminal moves, base station would switch Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is aamong several beams that provide the best proactive MANET routing protocol. OLSR reducesperformance according to changing propagation the number of retransmissions by providing bestconditions. Switched beam antenna could attain an possible routes in terms of number of hops. For thisarray gain of K due to K beams and a range gain. purpose, the protocol uses Multipoint Relays toThe switched beam antenna construct a group of efficiently flood its control messages by declaringoverlapped fixed directional beams together result in the links of neighbors. Only the Mid Point Relays ofomni-directional coverage. The opinion of switching a node retransmit its broadcast messages, hence nofunction is to select among separate antenna extra control interchange is generated in response toelements in receiving mode or predefined range link failures [12]. OLSR is particularly suitable forbeams in transmission mode. The main disadvantage huge and dense networks. The path from sourceof the switched beam antenna is the permanent to destination consists of a sequence of hopsnature of the beams. These beams cannot be focused through the Mid Point Relays. In OLSR, ato the specific angle of the receiver. Switched Beam HELLO message is broadcasted to all of itsAntennas are simpler and cheaper than steerable neighbors containing information about itsantennas. neighbors and their link status and received by the nodes which are one hop away but they are notIV. MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS passed on to further nodes. OLSR is designed to Routing means to select a path. Routing in work in a completely different manner and does notMANET means to select a right and suitable path need to transmission of control messages. Controlfrom source to destination. Routing protocols [5] in messages contain a string number which isMANETs are classified into three different incremented for each message. Thus the receiver ofcategories according to their functionality. a control message can easily identify which1. Reactive (On-demand) protocols (DSR) information is needed and up-to-date - even if the2. Proactive (Table driven) protocols (OLSR) received messages are not in order.3. Hybrid protocols (ZRP) C. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)A. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol ZRP [12][14] is a hybrid routing protocols Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [10] is a which combines the best properties of bothreactive protocol and as well known as on demand proactive and reactive and takes improvement ofi.e. it doesn’t use interrupted advertisements. It proactive routing uses excess bandwidth to maintaincomputes the routes when required and then routing information, while reactive routing involvesmaintains them. Dynamic Source routing is a long route request delays. Therefore, ZRP reducesrouting method in which the sender of a packet the proactive scope to a zone centered on each node.determines the complete string of nodes through In a limited zone, the amount of routing informationwhich the packet has to pass. There are two major never used is minimized. In ZRP each node isstages in working of DSR: Route Discovery and assumed to maintain routing information only forRoute Maintenance. A host initiating a route those nodes that are within its routing zone. Becausediscovery broadcasts a route request packet which the updates are only propagated locally, the amountmay be received by those hosts within wireless of update traffic required to maintain a routingtransmission range of it. The route request packet zone does not depend on the total number ofidentifies the host, referred to as the target of the network nodes of both ON-demand and table drivenroute discovery, for which the route is requested. If routing protocol .the route discovery is successful the initiating hostreceives a route reply packet listing a sequence of V. SIMULATION SETUPnetwork hops through which it may reach the target. A. QuaiNet 5.01:While a host is using any source route, it monitors The simulator used in this paper is QualNetthe continued correct operation of that route. This 5.0.1, [16] which is developed by Scalable Networkmonitoring of the correct operation of a route in use Technologies. The simulation is running based onis called route maintenance. When route discrete event scheduler. So as to means themaintenance detects a problem with a route in use, simulation is not performed in a constant time flow,route discovery may be used again to discover a but at specific points of time when events occur.new, correct route to the destination. DSR [10] uses QualNet is a predictive high-fidelity modeling toolno periodic routing advertisement messages, thereby for wired and wireless networks of tens of thousandsreducing network bandwidth overhead, particularly of nodes. It employ of computational resources ofduring periods when little or no significant host 240 | P a g e
  4. 4. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244mobility models in large-scale networks with heavy Fig. 2 QualNet Implemented protocolstraffic load for reasonable simulation times. HTTP , FTP, CBR , Telnet, ApplicationB. QualNet implemented models: Layer VoIP, OLSR, …. QualNet is implemented using a TCP/IPnetwork model which is similar to layeredarchitecture as shown in Fig. 2. The application UDP, TCP, RTP, RSVP-TElayer takes place of traffic generation and Transportapplication level routing. Numerous traffic Layergenerator models and application level routingprotocols have been implemented in QualNet. DSR, IPv4,Different Traffic generators supported inc1ude Network ZRP, IPv6HTTP, MCBR, CBR, FTP, VoIP, TELNET, VBR Layeretc. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is often used to AODVsimulate transferring files between server and client, MAC/Link CSMA, IEEE 802.3, 802.11,CBR (Constant Bit Rate) is often used to simulatefixed-rate uncompressed multimedia traffic. The Layer Aloha, Routing(VoIP) Voice over Internet Protocol is used to Routedsimulate the routing of voice conversations over theinternet or through any other IP based network. In Point to Free Physical LayerPHY layer, QualNet supports three propagation Point, Space,models pathloss,free space, two ray and irregular Bus Radio,terrain. It offers two fading models: Ricean and WiredRayleigh model. QualNet provides three antennamodels: omni-directional, switched-beam and Wireless Table 1 Parameters we consider for Simulationsteerable antenna [16]. Setup Parameter ValueC. Simulation Methodology In this paper simulation is performed by Simulator QUALNET 5.01increasing the no. of node 10 to 100 linearly with in Routing Protocols OLSR, DSR, ZRPthe simulation area 1500x1500. The nodes aredeployed randomly in the specified area and node Mac Type IEEE 802.11follows the random way point mobility model. Number of Nodes 100These source nodes transmit 1000 byte data packets Transmission range 600mper second at a constant bit rate (CBR) across theestablished route for the entire simulation time 30 Simulation Time 30ssecond. Simulation Area 1500 X 1500 Random WaypointD. Snapshot Mobility Model Mobility Energy Model Mica-Motes Traffic Type Constant-Bit Rate Node Placement Model Random Battery Model Linear Model Full Battery Capacity 1000 (mA,h) Battery Charge 30 Sec. Monitoring Interval Omni direction Antenna Models Steerable Switched ModeFig. 1 snapshot of simulation scenario representing Total packet sent 24route discovery mechanism of 100 nodes for dsrrouting. Packet Size 12288 Bytes Throughput 4274 Channel Frequency 2.4 GHz 241 | P a g e
  5. 5. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244 End to End Delay Vs Directional Antennas 0.45 0.4 0.35 End to End Delay 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAM OLSR 0.23901771 0.16162224 0.17831068Fig. 3 snapshot of simulation scenario representing DSR 0.40202679 0.17596349 0.18482654 ZRP 0.36043164 0.17094125 0.19482479cbr between nodes 1 to node 40 Fig. 5 end to end delay for different routingVI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION protocols vs using directional antennasA. Impact on Average Jitter Average Jitter: It is the alteration in arrival Fig. 5 shows the impact of directional antennas ontime of the packets and caused due obstruction, the End to End Delay taking routing protocol astopology changes. It is measured in second. parameter. Following assumption can be made:  The DSR presents highest values of End to Average Jitter Vs Directional Antennas End Delay for omni and steerable antennas.  The OLSR presents least value of End to 0.2 0.18 End Delay for all three directional antennas. 0.16 0.14 Average Jitter 0.12 C. Impact on Throughput 0.1 Throughput: Average rate of successful 0.08 data packets received at destination is called 0.06 0.04 throughput. It is genuine output and precise in bps 0.02 (bit/s) 0 OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAM Throughput Vs Directional Antennas OLSR 0.175369469 0.069309659 0.079524711 DSR 0.18200939 0.06744727 0.07872601 45000 ZRP 0.153206493 0.046904935 0.069578021 40000 35000Fig. 4 average jitter for different routing protocols 30000 Throughputvs using directional antennas 25000 20000 15000Fig. 4 shows the impact of directional antennas on 10000the Average Jitter taking routing protocol as 5000parameter. Following assumption can be made: 0 OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAM The DSR presents highest values of OLSR 38940.2222 28787.2342 42191.1111Average Jitter for omni and switched beam DSR 36355.3333 27787.5555 42726.2222antennas. ZRP 25319.1234 26270.2222 36262.9999 The OLSR shows highest value of Average Fig. 6 throughput for different routing protocols vsJitter for steerable antenna. using directional antennas The ZRP presents least value of theaverage jitter for all three directional antennas. Fig. 6 shows the impact of directional antennas on the Throughput taking routing protocol asB. Impact on Average End to End Delay parameter. Following statement can be made: End-to-End Delay: Delays due to buffering  The DSR presents highest values ofduring the interface queues, route discovery process, Throughput for switched beam antenna.and transfer the channel. It measured in second.  The OLSR shows highest value of Throughput for omni-directional antenna.  The ZRP presents least value of the average jitter for all three directional antennas. D. Impact on Energy consumed in Transmit Mode: The mobility, scalability, efficiency, lifetime, effective sampling frequency and response 242 | P a g e
  6. 6. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244time of nodes, all these parameters of the MANET consumed in received mode in all directionaldepend upon the power. In case of power failure the antennas.network goes down break therefore energy is  The DSR consumes moderate energy forrequired for maintaining the individual health of the all three directional antennas.nodes in the network, during receiving the packets  The OLSR consumes least energy inand transmitting the data as well. switched beam directional antenna. F. Impact on Energy consumed in Ideal Mode: Energy Consumed in Transmit Mode (m jules) Energy Consumed in Transmit Mode Vs Directional Antennas Fig. 9 shows the impact of directional antennas on 0.04 the Energy Consumed in Ideal Mode taking routing 0.035 protocol as parameter. Following interference can be 0.03 made:  0.025 The ZRP presents highest energy 0.02 0.015 consumed in Ideal mode in all directional antennas. 0.01  The DSR consumes moderate energy for 0.005 all three directional antennas. 0  The OLSR consumes least energy in all OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAM 0.020556 0.020833 0.020642 directional antennas. OLSR DSR 0.024742 0.018463 0.0160512 ZRP 0.035098 0.023173 0.024856 Energy Consumed in Ideal Mode Vs Directional AntennasFig. 7 energy consumed in transmit mode for Energy Consumed in Ideal Mode (m Jules) 0.004different routing protocols using directional 0.0035antennas 0.003 0.0025Fig. 7 shows the impact of directional antennas on 0.002the Energy Consumed in Transmit Mode taking 0.0015routing protocol as parameter. Following 0.001interference can be made: 0.0005 The ZRP presents highest energy 0 OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAMconsumed in all directional antennas. 0.00093 0.001071 0.001098 OLSR The DSR consumes moderate energy for DSR 0.003311 0.002361 0.001759all three directional antennas. ZRP 0.003764 0.003464 0.001408 The OLSR consumes least energy in omnidirectional antenna. Fig. 9 Energy Consumed in Ideal Mode for different routing protocols using Directional AntennasE. Impact on Energy consumed in TransmitMode: VII. CONCLUSION The use of directional antennas inside Energy Consumed in Received Mode ( m jules) Energy Consumed in Received Mode Vs Directional Antennas Mobile Ad-hoc network can extensively improve 0.0045 the performance of wireless networks. Less 0.004 interference and higher data rates can be achieved 0.0035 due to narrow directional beams using these 0.003 antennas. In this paper, we have simulated and 0.0025 analyzed the impact of directional antennas on 0.002 0.0015 reactive proactive and hybrid routing protocols 0.001 (OLSR, DSR and ZRP) in mobile ad-hoc networks 0.0005 using omni, steerable and switched beam directional 0 antennas. These routing protocols performed OMNI-DIRECTIONAL STEERABLE SWITCHED BEAM OLSR 0.001593 0.001071 0.001098 throughput, delay, jitter in application layer and DSR 0.002911 0.002361 0.001759 energy consumption in physical layer of TCP/IP and ZRP 0.004121 0.0031598 0.0036194 simulation results of all protocols are shown above. All these parameters of the MANET depend uponFig. 8 energy consumed in received mode for the power. In case of power failure the network goesdifferent routing protocols using directional down break therefore energy is required forantennas maintaining the individual health of the nodes in theFig. 8 shows the impact of directional antennas on network, during receiving the packets andthe Energy Consumed in Received Mode taking transmitting the data. Our analysis shows that byrouting protocol as parameter. Following using directional antennas, ad hoc networks mayinterference can be made: achieve better performance. However, scenarios The ZRP presents highest energy 243 | P a g e
  7. 7. Dharam Vir, S.K.Agarwal, S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.238-244exist in which omni-directional antennas may be [9] Per H. Lehne, “An Overview of Smartsuitable. With the fast development of directional Antenna Technology for Mobileantenna technology, the size of a directional antenna Communications Systems”, IEEEbecomes smaller and the cost of it reduces also. The Communication Surveys, Vol. 2, No. 4,nature of radiating radio energy only towards a 1999, pp 2-13.certain direction makes directional antennas save [10] Asis Nasipuri, Jothsna Mandava, H. M.,more power, increase transmission range and reduce and Hiromoto, R.E. On-Demand Routingneighborhood interference compared with omni- Using Directional Antennas in Mobile Addirectional antennas. Hoc Networks. In IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking However for further research is desirable to Conference (WCNC) (2000).establish the best combination of physical, MAC [11] Choudhury, R. R., and Vaidya, N. H.and routing protocols in order to be able to get the Impact of Directional Antennas on Ad Hocmost benefit out of directional antennas. Networks Routing. In Personal and Wireless Communication (PWC) (2003).REFERENCES [12] Royer, E., and Chai-Keong, O. A review [1] J.Broch, D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y.ch of current routing protocols for ad hoc and hu and J. Jetcheva, “A performance mobile wireless networks. IEEE Personal comparison of Multi – hop wireless sensor Communications 6, 2 (Apr 1999), 46-55. ad-hoc for mobile ad-hoc networks” in [13] Kagenari Yamamoto Miki Yamamoto, proc. 4th annual IEEE/ACM International "Performance improvement of Ad Hoc Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks by Deployment of Directional Networking, Dallas, Texas, US Oct. 1998, Antenna", Proceedings of the Third pp. 85-97. International Conference on Mobile [2] C.E. Perkins & E.M. Royer, Ad-hoc On- Computing and Ubiquitous Networking Demand Distance Vector Routing, (ICMU), London, UK, 2006. Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop [14] B. Alawieh, C. Assi, W. Ajib, "A Power on Mobile Computing Systems and Control Scheme for Directional MIAC Applications, New Orleans, LA, February Protocols in MANET”, IEEE Conf, 1999, pp. 90-100 WCNC2007, pp.258-263, 2007. [3] A. Boukerche, Performance Evaluation of [15] Smart antenna systems. Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/smart Networks, Mobile Networks and ant/ Applications 9, Netherlands, 2004, pp. 333- [16] QualNet Simulator Version 5.0.1 Scalable 342 Network Technologies, www.scalable- [4] Samir R.Das, Charles E.Perkins, Elizabeth networks.com .Royer , Performance Comparison of Two On-demand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks. IETF RFC, No. 3561, Jul.2003. [5] Muktadir A.H.A. 2007. “Energy Consumption study of OLSR and DYMO MANET Routing Protocols” in Urban Area, National Conference on Communication and Information Security, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp.133-136. [6] Ahmed S. and Alam M. S., “Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols”. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Com. and Networking. Vol. 2006. Issue 2. pp.1-11. [7] Subir Kumar Sarkar, T,G. Basavaraju, and C. Puttamadappa, "Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications", Auerbach Publications, US, 2008. [8] D. Johnson, Y. Hu, D. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad- hoc Networks for IPv4”. RFC 4728. February, 2007. 244 | P a g e

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