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  1. 1. Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay, R. B. Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.146-149146 | P a g ePhysicochemical properties on Non Edible Crude Oil with ItsPerformance Analysis on Base Fuel (Diesel Fuel)Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay* R. B. Sharma*** M. Tech. Scholar, Automobile Engineering, RJIT, BSF Academy, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., India**HOD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RJIT, BSF Academy, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., IndiaAbstractBiodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid alkylesters obtained by the reaction of triglycerides ofvegetable or animal origin with alcohol in thepresence of a catalyst. In this work the biodieselhas been taken as non edible type in nature. Theproblems of this oil are attributed to highviscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturatedcharacter of vegetable oils. Hence, process oftransesterification is found to be effective methodof reducing viscosity and eliminating operationaland durability problems. The comparativeperformance on the basis of physicochemicalproperty of biodiesel and base fuel is alsopresented in this work. The advantages effect ofbiodiesel as compare of base fuel has been alsoshown.Keywords: Biodiesel, No edible Oil,Transerterification, Diesel fuel (base fuel).Introduction:The yearly reports in pollutants ofatmosphere are also in increasing trend, the need isto develop the eco friendly fuel to meet the fossilfuel depletion. These reasons increase the attentiontowards vegetable oil as an alternate fuel source.Biodiesel is the name of clean burning fuel,produced from domestic renewable resources. Itcontains no petroleum but it can be blended at anylevel with petroleum diesel to greater biodieselblend. It can be used in CI engine with no majormodifications. It is simple to use, bio degradable,non toxic and essentially free of sulphur andaromatics [1].Nowadays due to the limited resourcesof fossil fuels, rising crude oil prices and theincreasing concerns for the environment, there hasbeen renewed focus on the vegetable oils and animalfats as an alternative fuel sources. Among theattractive feature of the biodiesel are (i) if it a plant,non petroleum derived and as such its combustiondoes not increase the current net atmospheric levelsof CO2, a green house gas. (ii) it can bedomestically produced offering the possibility ofreducing petroleum imports, (iii) It is biodegradable(iv) relative to the conventional diesel itscombustion products have reduced the levels ofparticulate matter, UBHC, and CO[2].Plant oil, whenblended with fossil diesel or transesterified intobiodiesel, does not generally require any enginemodification is recommended, however, if the plantoil is useddirectly in neat form, mainly due to higherviscosity of the plant oils compared to fossil dieselwhich leads to incomplete combustion and cokeformation inside the cylinder and in fuel supplysystems including the injectors [3].The fuelproperties of biodiesel such as cetane number, heatof combustion, specific gravity, and kinematicviscosity influence the combustion and so the engineperformance and emission characteristics because ithas different physical and chemical property.Methodology:There are several number of non edibleseed is use in production of biodiesel. Some areNeem, hemp, castor, Datura-stremonium, kranja,jetropa and pongame.These seeds are use toexpelled by using electric oil expeller. There aresome important substance also meet in biodieselwhich also improve the quality of biodiesel such aremethanol, sodium hydroxide (NAOH) andanhydrous sodium sulphate (NA2SO4)[4]. Theprocess use to convert non edible oil to biodiesel isshown in figure
  2. 2. Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay, R. B. Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.146-149147 | P a g eFigure 1 Production process of biodiesel [5]The step by step processes which are generally use to convert non edible oil to biodiesel are:Transesterification: The formation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through transesterification ofseed oils requires raw oil, 12-16% of methanol & 4-5.5% of sodium hydroxide on mass basis. However,transesterification is an equilibrium reaction in which excess alcohol is required to drive the reaction very closeto completion. The vegetable oil was chemically reacted with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to produceFAMEs. Glycerol was separated as a by-product of transesterification reaction.One liter crude non edible oiltakes and filtered it. Now heated between 110-130°C and to remove the moisture content on it. Thetransesterification reaction performed at 5.8:1 molar ratio of methanol/crude oil, by using 0.33%, 0.66% and1.33% (w/w) NAOH as catalyst [4].Trans esterification is a chemical reaction which is shown below in figureFigure 2 Transesterification process[5]Purification: As shown in figure 1, the resultantcrude biodiesel has some amount of glycerol on it.Before it use pure biodiesel there is requirement toremove glycerol on it. Removing of glycerol on thisby using that process is called purification. Inpurification there are two layers, the upper layer of
  3. 3. Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay, R. B. Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.146-149148 | P a g ebiodiesel was purified by distilling the residualmethanol at 55-65°C. The remaining catalyst wasremoved by successive rinsing with distilled waterby adding some amount of drops of acetic acid toneutralize the catalyst. The residual canbeeliminated by treatment with anhydrous sodiumsulphate (Na2SO4) followed byfiltration.Transparent blackish liquid was obtainedas the final product [4].Acid neutralisation method: By the way in thisprocess we use the specific method, in which we dothe acid base titration technique. This process isfollowed the method on ASTM, 2003 on it [6].Properties of fuels: In a fuel there is mostimportant thing on it which is the property of fuel.There are mainly 2 types of property on any fuel;they are physical, chemical property.The propertiesof any plant oil depend on the plant variety andconditions of cultivation.Physiochemical property of a fuel:Viscosity: Viscosity is a measure of the internalfriction or resistance of an oil to flow. As thetemperature of oil is increased, its viscositydecreases, and it is, therefore, able to flow morereadily. Viscosity is measured on several differentscales, including Redwood No. 1 at 100 F, EnglerDegrees, Say bolt Seconds, etc., the number ofseconds required for 50 ml. of oil to flow out of astandard Redwood viscometer at a definitetemperature.Viscosity is the most importantproperty of biodiesel since it affects the operation ofthe fuel injection equipment, particularly at lowtemperatures when the increase in viscosity affectsthe fluidity of the fuel. Biodiesel has a viscosityclose to that of Diesel fuels. High viscosity leads topoorer atomization of the fuel spray and lessaccurate operation of the fuel injectors. A novelprocess of BD fuel production has been developedby a non-catalytic supercritical methanol method.Density: Density is another important property ofbiodiesel. It is the weight of a unit volume of fluid.Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a liquidto the density of water. The specific gravity ofbiodiesels ranges between 0.86 and 0.90. Fuelinjection equipment operates on a volume meteringsystem, hence a higher density for biodiesel resultsin the delivery of a slightly greater mass of fuel.Cetane number: Cetane number (CN) is based ontwo compounds, namely hexadecane with a cetanenumber of 100 and heptamethylnonane with acetane number of 15. The CN scale also shows thatstraight chain, saturated hydrocarbons have higherCN compared to branched chain or aromaticcompounds of similar molecular weight and numberof carbon atoms. The CN of biodiesel is generallyhigher than that of conventional Diesel. The CN isone of the prime indicators of the quality of Dieselfuel. It relates to the ignition delay time of a fuelupon injection into the combustion chamber. TheCN is a measure of the ignition quality of Dieselfuels, and high CN implies short ignition delay. Thelonger the fatty acid carbon chains and the moresaturated the molecules, the higher the CN will be.The CN of biodiesel from animal fats is higher thanthose from vegetable oils.Cloud point and pour point: There are twoimportant parameters for low temperatureapplications of a fuel are cloud point (CP) and pourpoint (PP). The CP is the temperature at which waxfirst becomes visible when the fuel is cooled. ThePP is the temperature at which the amount of waxout of solution is sufficient to gel the fuel, thus it isthe lowest temperature at which the fuel can flow.Biodiesel has higher CP and PP compared toconventional Diesel.Sulphur contents: The most valuable result is thereduction and absence of percentage of total sulphurcontents in biodiesel that will result in reduction ofSox in exhaust gases which is one of the reasons ofacid rain. Sulfur content of petro diesel is 20–50times higher than biodiesels.Heating value: Heating value or heat of combustionis the amount of heating valueenergy released bythe combustion of unit values of fuels. This isalways taking to high on it.Flash point: This is the minimum temp. at which thefuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignitionsource. Flash point varies inversely with the fuel`svolatility. Minimum flash point temperatures arerequired for proper safety and handling of dieselfuel. Flash point is the temperature that indicates theoverall flammability hazards in the presence of air;higher flash points make for safe handling andstorage of biodiesel.Iodine value: Iodine value is the value of the amountof iodine, measured in grams, adsorbed by 100 g ofthe given oil. Iodine value is generally used as ameasure of the chemical stability properties ofdifferent Biodiesel fuels against oxidation. Higherthe iodine value, lesser the stability of the Biodiesel.The iodine values of the Biodiesel fuel isconsiderably low and thereby they are stable.Latent heat of vaporization: Latent heat ofvaporization is the quantity of heat absorbed by afuel on passing b/w liquid and gaseous phases. Thecondition under which latent heat of vaporization ismeasured is the boiling point and atmosphericpressure is 101.4 kpa.Flammability limits: Minimum and maximumconcentrations of vapor on air below and abovewhich the mixture are un ignitable a vapor air belowthe lower flammable limits is too lean to ignite ,which a concentration above the upper flammablelimits is too rich to ignite.Boiling point: The boiling point is that point inwhich fuel started to boil on it.Flame visibility: Flame visibility is a degree towhich combustion of a substance under variousconditions can be seen.
  4. 4. Yogendra Prasad Upadhyay, R. B. Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.146-149149 | P a g eOdor recognition: Degree of smell associated withthat fuel that fuel vapors.Comparative analysis of bio fuel with diesel fuel:There are fishable comparison on the basis ofpsychochemical property between biodiesel anddiesel fuel are given belowTable: property analysis of both fuels[4-9]Serial number Property of fuel with data Diesel fuel Biodiesel1 Viscosity@ 40oC cSt 1.25 to 1.40 3.45 to 5.822 Density@15oC Kg/L 0.83 0.86 to 0.903 Cetane number 49 45 to 654 Cloud point(oC) -23 to 12.5 -14 to 75 Pour point(oC) 6 to 7 -9 to 96 Flash point(oC) 47 to 70 95 to 2107 Sulphur % wt 0.05 0.00088 Lower heating value in btu/gal 129050 1181709 Iodine value 117-143 -10 Boiling point (oC) 180-340 315-350Conclusion:In this paper researcher do Experimentalinvestigations and carried out in a single cylinderdiesel engine to examine the suitability of differentnon edible oil as alternate fuels. Further theperformance and emission characteristics of theseoils are evaluated and compared with diesel andoptimum fuel is determined. From the aboveinvestigations, followingconclusions are drawn.1) The properties viz: density, viscosity, flashpoint and pour point of non edible oils arehigher and cetane value is also higher than thediesel.2) Viscosity at 400C of diesel is very good ascompare to biodiesel. Hence preheating of oilsis required to attain the smooth flow.Hence from above conclusions it may be stated thatnon edible oils with preheating has acceptableperformance with lower emissions. Hence theseneat oils with preheating can be substituted as fuelfor diesel engine without any modification in thediesel engine.References:[1] Performance and Emission Characteristicsof a Diesel Engine Fueled with Blend ofVegetable Oil Esters by-J.IsaacJoshuaRamesh Lalvani. ISSN: 2278-7798International Journal of Science,Engineering and Technology Research(IJSETR) Volume 1, Issue 2, August2012.[2] Exhaust Emission Analysis UsingNakthamala Oil Biodiesel Fuel In A C.IEngine With Ann By-R.Sarala. InInternational Journal of Research inEnvironmental Science and TechnologywithISSN 2249–9695.[3] Performance, emission and combustion 1characteristics of an indirect injection(IDI) multi-cylinder compression ignition(CI) engine operating on neat jatropha andkaranj oils preheated by jacket water. By-A. K. Hossain.[4] Biodiesel from Non Edible Oil Seeds: ARenewable Source of Bioenergy by-Mushtaq Ahmad, Biofuel Lab.,Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University IslamabadPakistan.[5] Production of Biodiesel from Non-edibleplant oils having high FFA content, by -M.Mathiyazhagan. April 2011, Volume 2,No.2 International Journal of Chemicaland Environmental Engineering.[6] High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) FeedstockPre-Treatment Method for BiodieselProduction, by- Godlisten G. Kombe.Second International Conference onAdvances in Engineering and Technology.[7] Biodiesel production via non-catalyticSCF method and biodiesel fuelcharacteristics, by-Ayhan Demirbas.[8] Use of vegetable oils by transesterificationmethod as C.I. engines fuels: a technicalreview, by-Sagar P.Kadu.Journal ofEngineering Research and Studies E-ISSN0976-7916.[9] Performance Evaluation, EmissionCharacteristics and Economic Analysis ofFour Non-Edible Straight Vegetable Oilson a Single Cylinder CI Engine, by- M. C.Navindgi, ARPN Journal of Engineeringand Applied Sciences, VOL. 7, NO. 2,FEBRUARY 2012 ISSN 1819-6608.