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  1. 1. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143 The Integrated Between Total Production Maintenance Practices And Kaizen Event Practices In Malaysian Automotive Industry Suzaituladwini Hashim*, Nurul Fadly Habidin**, Juriah Conding*, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir*, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya* *Department of Accounting and Finance, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Malaysia ** Department of Management and Leadership, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, MalaysiaABSTRACT Successful modern manufacturing Hence, the implementation TPM practice inindustry requires support by efficiently and the manufacturing industry is an important practice toeffectively maintenance. One of effective be able to increase production and reduce inefficientmaintenance approach is the Total Productive equipment [1].Maintenance (TPM) practice. TPM practice is TPM focuses on maximizing Overallalso able to support to other practices such as Equipment Efficiency (OEE) with the all employeeKaizen Event (KE) practice. The purpose of this involvement in the organization. It not only involvespaper is to examine the relationship of TPM the maintenance practice, but it can also increasepractices and KE practices in Malaysian maintenance skills and employees knowledge as aautomotive industry. A conceptual model using whole [2]. Today, the competitions betweenStructural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been organizations are increasing and organizations areproposed. This model will be used to study the working to achieve World Class Manufacturingrelationship between TPM practices and KE (WCM) to maintain the quality of their production.practices for Malaysian automotive industry. TPM is seen as a complement to other WCMBased on the proposed conceptual model and practices such as Total Quality Management (TQM),reviewed, research hypotheses are being Just-In-Time manufacturing (JIT), Total Employeedeveloped. The paper culminates with suggested Involvement (TEI) and Continuous Performancefuture research work. Improvement (CPI) [60-63]. Therefore, organizations need to use some efficient maintenance and effectiveKeywords – Total Productive Maintenance, manufacturing practices such as TPM and KE. KE isKaizen Event, Automotive Industry, SEM also derived from the Japan practices involving continuous improvement in the organization. EffectI. INTRODUCTION of TPM execution will have an impact on Development of the automotive industry in organizational performance in general [3,4]. TPM isMalaysia began more than 27 years ago with the also effect on continuous improvement activitiesestablishment of PROTON followed by PERODUA. indirectly.Automotive sector at Malaysia began with the Therefore, in this study will examine theimportation of vehicles progressed to which the relationship between the TPM practices and KEassembly operations and the development of the practices in the automotive industry. In addition, thisautomotive component industry. Positive study was to see how execution of TPM in thedevelopment in this industry is greatly influenced by automotive industry in Malaysia.Japanese automotive companies in many ways likemanagement, engineering, technology, maintenance II. LITERATURE REVIEWequipment and others. Automotive industry is the 2.1 Total Productive Maintenancemost industry highly involves quality effort, low The maintenance concept is important in theproduction cost, efficiency equipment, continuous manufacturing environment and it provides supportimprovement activities, development supply chains, for productivity. Maintenance activities areand adoptability advanced. important to increase level of readiness for face any Even so, after a while efficiency in the using eventualities, keep product quality and safety. It alsoof equipment becomes to worsen because the cost to will directly affect the cost of maintenance [5,6].buying new equipment is increasing. Then, industry Therefore, the Japanese was introduced the conceptmust choose to use the equipment at maximum levels of TPM began in 1971. TPM is a system thatand do maintenance on the equipment. However the involves the systematic maintenance of allcost to make maintenance is very crucial and costly employees in reducing costs and improvingto manufacturers. Many organizations began to think economic efficiency [7]. TPM is includes allThat there should be a practice or a tool to ensure the equipment in every division including planning,maintenance to be more efficient and effective. manufacturing and maintenance. It is fundamental 136 | P a g e
  2. 2. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143for the comprehensive maintenance, improvement, maintenance and addressing equipmentand participation of all parties through small groups‘ problem, setting machine, manactivities [8]. and material (3M) condition [8]. Education and Tools of concerned improvement Seiichi [7] is the father of TPM has defined training strategy, improvement are madeTPM as an innovative approach for maintenance in the training system [19],system to eliminates breakdown and encourage the imparting technological, qualitymaintenance by employee through day-to-day control, interpersonal skills,activities [8-10]. Hence, according [11] TPM also multi-skilling of employees,affects activities competition to improve the periodic skill evaluation andcompanys structure as equipment improvement updating [16].activities and increase the knowledge employee. Inaddition, the TPM describes the relationship between Meanwhile, according to [20], TPM helps toproduction and maintenance for continuous maintain the asset and the latest equipment at theimprovement of product quality, operational productive highest levels through the cooperation ofefficiency and security. Definition of TPM according all employees in the organization. It also helps to[7] and [67]: increase the motivation of the workers in carrying out their daily tasks and through adequate empowerment, 1. TPM fully utilize efficient equipment (i.e. training and felicitations, thereby enhancing the OEE). employee participation toward realization of 2. TPM includes maintenance prevention, organizational goals and objectives [8]. preventive maintenance, improvement and maintenance related. 2.2 Kaizen Event (KE) 3. TPM involve all employees in the organization, Kaizen is a Japanese word that has become such as equipment designers, equipment common in many western companies. The word operators, and maintenance department workers. indicates a process of continuous improvement of the standard way of work [21]. It is a compound word But TPM is not just focused on purely involving two concepts: Kai (change) and Zen (formaintenance concept, but it is also related to culture, the better) [22]. The term comes from KE meaningphilosophy and a new attitude towards maintenance ‗Continuous Improvement‘ (CI). KE is one of the[12]. TPM is a comprehensive policy for the core strategies for excellence in production, and isorganization to improve organizational performance. considered vital in today‘s competitive environment[13,14]. This also support by [15] studied that TPM [23]. KE focused on a structured improvementcan change the cultural of organization. TPM suggest project, using the approach of ―cross-functionala variety way to promote this cultural change with team‖ to improve the target work area, with specifictop management support and training and changes in targets [24]. It calls for endless effort forreward systems. The three major concept of TPM is improvement involving everyone in the organizationmaximizing equipment effectiveness, autonomous [25].maintenance by operators, and small group activities Basically, the KE has been introduced and[7]. used by Imai in 1986 in Japan that aims to increaseTable 1.0: A constructs proposed by other authors efficiency, productivity and competitiveness in the Constructs Related Constructs Toyota Company. Toyota is a car manufacturing Autonomous Fostering operating skills, company in Japan, which seeks to maintain the maintenance fostering operating ownership, companys performance in the market. Since then, KE perform daily maintenance on is one of the Japanese manufacturing systems and production equipment [16], give a big impact in the success of the manufacturing detect and treat abnormal industry [26]. In addition [27], KE also is an operating conditions and inspect improvement process that involves all employees and monitor the performance from subordinates to superiors and must be work [17], keeping plant neat and together. Broadly defined, Kaizen is a strategy to clean, variety skill and task by include concepts, systems and tools within the bigger employee, Problem solving picture of leadership involving and people culture, all teams have helped improve driven by the customer. There are many definitions manufacturing processes [18]. related to the KE by previous authors. Therefore, Planned Preventive maintenance, below is a list of definitions of KE. maintenance breakdown maintenance, corrective maintenance, maintenance prevention [8]. Quality Achieving zero defects, tracking 137 | P a g e
  3. 3. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143 Table 2.0: Definition of KE Melnyk et al. [44] * * Definition Bateman and Rich * KE is more than just a way of improvement, but it [45] is also the representative the employees‘ daily Patil [46] * * tasks who strive to improve product quality and can be applied to any area in need of improvement [28]. Follow-up Activities KE is to generate process-oriented thinking to Follow-up activity is the action that reflects focus any improvements in every decision [29]. the KE. It involves the work area employees to KE be construed as a comprehensive process to complete the action. Follow-up activities also give the innovation process and sustainable freedom to the employees to make any changes and improvement [30]. innovation. But all the changes and innovations made KE explains that the way to achieve fundamental by employees will be related to KE goals [41]. improvement from the bottom is to enable Working Area Impact employees to establish their own measures, to align business strategies and to use them to drive KE activities affect the work area. Generally their KE activities [31]. KE activities can help employees who are improving Kaizen philosophy in the business management their work area [35]. Moreover, [24] states that the context is to give space to the management and KE is a complex phenomenon organizational and has employees to improve their creativity[32]. the potential to affect both systems, the technical KE as a lean thinking that emphasizes to system (work are performance) and social systems sistematic organization system and reduce (participation employees and of work areas wastage [33]. employees). Impact learning and stewardship when KE is the enhancement techniques that reduce the employees feel a shared of responsibility, freely share cost of production [34]. information, understand how their work fits into the KE have an impact on work culture, processes and experience and impacts experimentation when experience [24]. employee test new ideas to help themselves learn. KE seen as one of lean tools that help to ensure Employee Skill and Effort that operations become more smoothly and efficient by removing wasteful activities that are Employee Performance fundamentally of no value from a customer perspective [37]. depends on many factors like performance appraisals, Each practice that is created will have its employee motivation, employee satisfaction,own elements in its implementation. In this study, KE compensation, training and development, jobelement is divided into just 3 parts to suit the security, organizational structure and other. KE canautomotive industry environment is the follow-up improve the employee knowledge in managing anactivities, working area impact and employee skill organization with more systematic and successfuland effort. These elements are very important to the [47, 48]. It also can be one of the platforms forKE practice because it will affect the entire employee knowledge employees in principles, tools andof the organization and these elements affect lower techniques for continuous improvement [49].operating costs. There are some practices that can support increased the KE practices. As in the study conductedTable 3.0: Previous studies about KE‘s elements by [50] describe that the simulation is a good tool to Author Follow Worki Employe support the increase in KE practices. This study was up ng e skill carried out in two sectors, namely commercial and activiti area and aerospace manufacturers who use simulation as a es impact effort support to increase the KE practices. In summary, Anh et al. [17] * * according to this study the simulation process can be Doolen et al. [35] * * * used to support the KE practice, the simulation model Farris et al. [24] * * * can also be developed to help launch other practices, and interpreting the results with management can be Venkataiah and * * beneficial. In addition, [51] describes the critical Sagi [37] success factors of KE practices in Morris KE Van Aken et al. [39] * * Electronics Limited, an Indo-Japanese joint venture Recht, and * * firm is that the implimentation contributed concept Wilderom [40] to dramatic improvement in the productivity and Glover et al. [41] * * sustained competitiveness. Lyu [42] * * 2.3 Positive relationship between TPM and KE Marksberry et al. * * TPM stands a close relationship between [43] Maintenance and Productivity, showing how good 138 | P a g e
  4. 4. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143care and up-keep of equipment will result in higher 1) Improving equipment effectiveness byproductivity. It is a philosophy of kaizen event that targeting the major losses;creates a sense of ownership in the operators of each 2) Involving operators in daily, routinemachine as well as in their supervisor [52]. It is a maintenance of the equipment;process of maintenance management that empowers 3) Improving maintenance efficiency andthe organization with a progressive, continuous effectiveness;philosophy of enabling all manpower resources to 4) Training for everyone involved; andwork together to accomplish the mutual goal of 5) Life-cycle equipment management andmanufacturing efficiency. Hence, according [53] maintenance prevention design.TPM is a systematic way to provide undisturbed TPM based on the characteristics mentionedprocesses by using every workers involvement in by [57] above, there are similarities with the KEdecreasing costs and increasing total economic practice as described by [58] and [11] KE practice tryeffectiveness, through with following up process to eliminate 16 major loss, among them are failuredisturbances, improvement groups and independent losses breakdown loss, setup / adjustment losses,maintenance by operators. Therefore, the TPM is cutting blade loss, start up loss, minor stoppage /seen indirectly connected kaizen event performance Idling loss, speed loss operating at low speeds, defectin any industries, especially in manufacturing / rework loss and scheduled downtime Futhermore, [59] describe that OEE in TPM Furthermore, Kaizen event involving practices and set up reduction are actually used toemployees at every level and it is based on the Total drive KE practices in the development of a company.Quality Control (TQC) philosophy. The main thrust No appropriate measures of the process andTQC is to increase the quality of management as a equipment usage are available. Initially, six pilotwhole. While for TPM is the directly on the areas have been identified, out of these three turnedimprovement of equipment. Therefore, the kaizen out to be successful. Setup reduction has been appliedevent practice can reduce breakdowns the equipment, to reduce change over times, to meet the customerreduce damage costs and enhance management demand for greater product mix and to overcome theefficiency [53-55]. Indirectly, TPM practices have difficulties in machine loading. Both techniques areeffect on the KE practices. [55] Adds, TPM is the described in terms of how they help the company toimprovement practice that can be used alone and also drive improvement.together with the other improvement practices toenhance organizational performance. III. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Hence, the implementation of TPM practices To more understand the relationshipis very important to improve the KE practices. This is between TPM practices and KE practices in Malaysiabecause, according to [53] there are two distinct automotive industry, the following hypotheses will befeatures in the philosophy of KE prolonged efforts used and tested. TPM practices give many affect onand urgency for the improvement and changes an organizations management as managementgradually to make the equipment better. This feature efficiency, equipment efficiency, reducedis very important for the KE implementation. The maintenance costs and others. Thus, these hypothesesnext feature is the emphasis on process rather than on have been developed based on the proposedoutput. Meanwhile, [70] agree that KE in the conceptual model and previous studies.manufacturing sector is driven by the efficiency oforganizational practices that have been practiced formany years. It is important to know the basis ofsuccessful organizations, started from themanufacturing efficiency on par with othercompetitors in the market. Beside that [57] suggests TPM is thepractice improvement process in relation to manyelements of a good maintenance programme toachieve high efficiency equipment including: Fig.1 A proposed research model Autonomous maintenance Autonomous maintenance process is very important to the organization because it will affect the culture and organizational efficiency [64]. There 139 | P a g e
  5. 5. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143are seven steps in the autonomous maintenance, Addition, [52] also state that TPM implementationinitial cleaning, countermeasures for the causes and lead to higher efficiency equipment and increaseeffects of dirt and dust, cleaning and lubricating productivity. [18] Also states that the effectivestandards, general inspection, autonomous inspection, implementation of TPM can enhance employeeorganisation and tidiness, and full implementation of motivation and employee satisfaction. Besides, it canautonomous maintenance. This step will create a improve the performance of the organization toculture of the company in the daily maintenance survive in the market.activities. Based on autonomous activity, it can beattributed to the KE practices characteristics in terms Education and Trainingof follow-up activities to emphasize the continuous This element aims to foster the workers toconcept in improve the maintenance and have different skills and motivated workforce toimprovements quality. In addition, autonomous perform assigned duties [53, 69]. It can increase themaintenance involves also the self management and value and quality of workers in doing their duties incontrol [65]. With the implementation of autonomous the maintenance process. Therefore it affects the KEmaintenance, the gradual change from breakdown practice of emphasizing quality working environmentmaintenance, to planned, preventative and predictive using the cross functional team to improve and themaintenance was achieved, with consequential target work area, with specific targets [24]. Positivechanges to the organisation, and operation of the impact on the work area will ensure the organizationmaintenance function. performance will improved. Based on previous studies, therefore, a hypothesis hasPlanned maintenance been issued: Planned maintenance is a proactive method H1: There is a positive and direct significantthat uses trained employee to assist the operator to relationship between TPM implementation andensure that the equipment in good condition [53, 66]. KE in Malaysian automotive industry.If planned maintenance carried out withcontinuously, it will improve the efficiency of the IV. METHODOLOGYmaintenance department [67]. The features in this In this study, sampling method by usingplanned maintenance, can improve in terms of structured questionnaire. The population of this studyemployee skill and effort, where they will must to comprised in Malaysian automotive industry.ensure that all equipment is at the satisfactory level. Questionnaires will distribute to respondents from theIf the equipment should be repaired then the listing of automotive industry obtained fromemployee will use all their skills to maintain the Malaysian Automotive Component Parts Associationequipment. It is indirectly meet the criteria in the KE (MACPMA), Proton Vendors Association (PVA),practices. Each practice in KE is emphasize to and Kelab Vendor Perodua. To analyze the data, oneemployee performance is depend on many factors statistical technique was adopted. Structural equationlike performance appraisals, employee motivation, modelling techniques was utilize to perform theemployee satisfaction, compensation, training and require statistical analysis of the data from thedevelopment, job security, organizational structure survey. Exploratory factor analysis, reliabilityand others. analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to test for Meanwhile, planned maintenance usually construct validity, reliability, and measurementsinvolves employee and skilled technicians to handle loading were performed. Having analyzed themaintenance. It requires specialized knowledge to measurement model, the structural model was thenmaintain any equipment [18]. Proactive and efficient tested and confirmed. The statistical Package for themaintenance start from a disciplined plan to Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used todetermine which areas should be reinstated. analyze the preliminary data and provide descriptiveEmployees or technicians will complete the planned analyses about thesis sample such as means, standardmaintenance schedule [7, 18, 68]. It also affects the deviations, and frequencies. Structural EquationKE practices that emphasize a systematic and Modelling (SEM using AMOS 6.0) will use to testcontinuous practice. the measurement model.Quality maintenance This study is expected to arrive at the QM activities including prescribing the following conclusion: This study has importantconditions to prevent damage, to maintain product implication for TPM practice and KE practice inquality with properly, check the equipment in Malaysian automotive industry. As such, it isaccordance with standards established [8, 52, 53]. expected to benefit both researchers and practitioners.Then, according [55] QM aims to fulfil customerdemand through high quality equipment production, V. CONCLUSIONit also ensures that the equipment used to meet set Many previous studies indicate that the TPMstandards and maintenance carried out to improve the is a practice that affects the organizationalquality of equipment and maintain its perfection. In performance, but less research on TPM practices 140 | P a g e
  6. 6. Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Juriah Conding, Anis Fadzlin Mohd Zubir, Nurzatul Ain Seri Lanang Jaya / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.136-143indicate that TPM also had an impact on other performance, International Journal ofpractices such as KE practices in Malaysian Quality & Reliability Management, 25(2),automotive industry. Therefore, this study has been 2008a, 147-72.conducted based on the proposed conceptual model. [9] T. Conway, and E. Perry, IncorporatingIt aims to identify the relationship between TPM statistical process control into the team-practices and KE practices, especially in the based TPM environment, SemiconductorMalaysian automotive industries. Based on the Manufacturing Conference Proceedings,conceptual model and previous studies also, the 1999 IEEE International Symposium, Santahypothesis has been constructed. The next step is to Clare, CA, 11-13 October, 1999, a quality questionnaire to ensure that research [10] B. Bhadury, Management of productivityobjectives are achieved. This questionnaire will be through TPM, Productivity, 41(2), 2000,used on the future for pilot study data collection in 240-51.the Malaysian automotive industry. [11] L. Pintelon, S.K. Pinjala, and A. Vereecke, Evaluating the effectiveness of maintenanceAcknowledgements strategies, Journal of Quality in The researchers would like to acknowledge Maintenance Engineering, 12(1), 2006, 7-the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for the funding of this research thought [12] J.W. Patterson, W.J. Kennedy, and L.D.Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS), and Fredendall, Total productive maintenance isResearch Management Centre (RMC) UPSI for not for this company, Production andResearch University Grant (RUG). Inventory Management Journal, 36(2), 1995, 61-4.REFERENCES [13] R. Davis, and P. Willmott, Total Productive [1] C.F. Gomes, M.M. Yasin and J.V. Lisboa, Maintenance (Alden Press, Oxford. 1999). Performance measurement practices in [14] F.K. Wang, Evaluating the efficiency of manufacturing firms: an empirical implementing total productive maintenance, investigation, Journal of Manufacturing Total Quality Management & Business Technology Management, 17 (2), 2006, 144- Excellence, 17(5), 2006, 655-67. 67. [15] J.L. Lawrence, Use mathematical modeling [2] P. Kumar, A. Wadood, I.P.S. Ahuja, T.P. to give your TPM implementation effort an Singh and M. Sushil, Total productive extra boost, Journal of Quality in maintenance implementation in Indian Maintenance Engineering, 5(1),1999, 62-9. manufacturing industry for sustained [16] I.P.S. Ahuja, andJ.S. Khamba, Strategies and competitiveness, 34th International success factors for overcoming challenges in Conference on ‘Computers and Industrial TPM implementation in Indian Engineering’, San Francisco, CA, November manufacturing industry, Journal of Quality 14-16, 2004, 602-7. in Maintenance Engineering, 14(2), 2008b. [3] J. Dwyer, More than a maintenance [17] P. C. Anh,, Z. Jing, and Y. Matsui, technique, Works Management, 52(9), 1999, Empirical study on transferability of Kaizen 15-16. practices. The 11th International DSI and the [4] T. Dossenbach, Implementing total 16th APDSI Joint Meeting, Taipei, Taiwan, productive maintenance, Wood and Wood July 12-16, 2011. Products, Vol. 111 No. 2, 2006, pp. 29-32. [18] K.E. McKone, G.S. Roger, and K.O. Cua, [5] B. Al-Najjar, and I. Alsyouf, Selecting the Total productive maintenance: a contextual Most Efficient Maintenance Approach using view, Journal of Operations Management, Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making, 17,1999, 123-44. International Journal of Production [19] D. Seth, and D. Tripathi, Relationship Economics, 83(3), 2003, 81-96. between TQM and TPM implementation [6] I. Alsyouf, Measuring Maintenance factors and business performance of Performance using a Balanced Scorecard manufacturing industry in Indian context, approach, Journal of Quality in Maintenance International Journal of Quality & Engineering, Vol. 12 No 2, 2006, pp133- Reliability Management, 22, 2005, 256-77. 149. [20] D.H. Besterfield, C. Besterfield-Michna, [7] S. Nakajima, TPM Development Program: G.H. Besterfield, and M. Besterfield-Sacre, Implementing Total Productive Maintenance (1999), Total Quality Management, 2nd ed. (Productivity Press, Portland, OR, 1989). (Prentice-Hall International, Englewood [8] I.P.S. Ahuja and J.S. Khamba, An Cliffs, NJ, 1999). evaluation of TPM initiatives in Indian [21] J. C. Chen, J. Dugger, and B. Hammer, A industry for enhanced manufacturing Kaizen Based Approach for Cellular 141 | P a g e
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