International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)


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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) is dedicated to protecting personal information and will make every reasonable effort to handle collected information appropriately. All information collected, as well as related requests, will be handled as carefully and efficiently as possible in accordance with IJCER standards for integrity and objectivity.

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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)

  1. 1. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 A Novel Light-Sensor-Based Information Transmission System for Outdoor tracking tothe Indoor Positioning system 1 Dr.Shaik Meeravali, 2S.VenkataSekhar Depart ment of Electronics and Co mmunication Engineering, RRS Co llege of Engineering and Technology, Muthan gi, Faculty of Electronics and Co mmunication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Un iversity, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract The objective of this project describes a novel light-sensor-basedInformation transmission system for indoor positioningandNavigationwith particular benefits for mob ile and wearable co mputers. It canseamlessly extend outdoor GPS tracking totheindoor environment.In a novel manner, fluorescent lightis used as the mediumto transmit information. The userreceives theencoded light informat ion through a photoreceiver. The information ispassed into the wearable or mobile computer after the dataaredecoded. This informat ion allows positioning informat ion to be given to indoor mobile and wearable co mputers.Theproposedsystem can be used in indoor guidance and navigation applications.An embedded system is a comb ination of softwareand hardware to perform a dedicated task.Some of the main devices used in embedded products are Microprocessors andMicrocontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to as general purpose processors as they simp ly accept the inputs, process itand give the output.Itusing PIC16F72, PIC16F877A microcontroller is an exclusive project which is used to find the positionidentification for the different blocks in the organization by using the Zigbee module. This info rmation is provided by the GPSwith the help of the data it receives fro m the satellites.Index Terms—Aug mented reality (AR), electronic ballast, fluorescentlamp, navigation, wearab le co mputer.I. Introduction MOBILE or wearable co mputers and augmented realitytechnology are finding applications in human positionguidanceand navigation [1]. Co mmonly, GPS sensors havewidely been used with these interactive technologies for navigationandpositioning. For example, GPS-based positioningfor wearable co mputers has been used in the applicationof outdoor augmentedreality (AR).AR merges virtual objects or text informat ion into a realenvironment and displays this combination in real time.Unlikev irtual environ ments , AR supplements reality, rather than completelyreplacing it. This property makes AR particu larlywellsuited as a tool to aid the user’s perception of and interactionwith the real wo rld. The info rmation conveyed by thevirtualobjects helps a user perform real-world tasks.Although AR technology combined with wearable GPS is mature, t heinformat ion transmission method for wearable GPScannot provide informat ion indoors or in crowded urban areas since thesignals from the satellite would be shielded by thearmored concrete structure of the building. One might instead use activebadges or beacon architectures, but installing and maintaining such systems involves substantial effort and high expense. Hen ce,indoor tracking system develop ment becomes useful to seamles sly extend outdoor tracking into indoors. Some fo rms of indoorpositioning, such as magnetic and ultrasonic sensing, are also available, but they are normally for a short range and expensi veand require complex hardware installations. Thus, there is a prob lem that such commercially availab le sensing systems forindoor tracking of mobile and wearable co mputers are accurate but impractical and expensive for wide areas . This project aim is to identifying the different blocks in the organization by using the Zigbee module. And the emp loyercan be able to find where the employee in the organization. All the mult inational companies are having more than 50 blocks in asingle building those are working for different projects. So it is difficult to find by the new emp loyee to know which b lock isbelongs to which category. For this we are going to develop a new project which is apt for the new employee’s to know thedifferent blocks in the organization.II. Comparison with Other Systems To extend GPS data for indoor applications, some researchers used computer-vision-based tracking algorith ms toperform the tracking. For instance, put fiducialmarkerson the walls and used a marker -based tracking algorith m fo rindoortracking of a mobile user. Although this kind of trackingis only software based and there is no need for any specialhardware,except for the paper markers, if we want to use thismethod, we need to have many different markers and put themin every placeto cover the whole area, and in the state of artin computer vision tracking systems, we can detect less than100 markers at thesame time. Furthermore, all the markersmust be predefined for the users, and the user’s mobile devicemust know which positioneach marker is located, which is notpractical when the user arrives to a new building.||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 120
  2. 2. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 Other proposed methods for indoor tracking aremainly basedon ultrasound, radio frequency, and IR. In addition to thesetechnologies, because of the popularity of wireless networks inrecent years, many works have been done to infer the locationof awireless client based on Wi-Fi technology on the IEEE802.11 standard. For instance, the Finnish company Ekahau hasdeveloped a software-basedWi-Fi location technology.In their system, they only need three wireless stations for theircalculat ion,and the rests are done in software. Although eachtechnology has its own advantages and disadvantages, in general,there is atradeoff between the accuracy of the tracking andthe total cost of the system. For example, ultrasound trackingcan be highlyaccurate, such as the IS-900 system developed bythe Intersense Company, with a price of over 15 000 USD,or it can be designedin a cheap way like the system proposed by Randell and Muller, wh ich costs about 150 USD withan accuracy of 10– 25 cm. InTable I, we listed the cost andaccuracy of different indoor tracking systems in co mparisonwith our system. As can be seen in thistable, the proposedsystem has the lowest tracking performance (on the order ofoutdoor GPS), but it is the cheapest one as well.As a result, oursystem is not suitable for applicat ions that need highly accuratetracking, such as virtual reality applications, andbecause it is one of the cheapest methods for indoor tracking, it is a goodcandidate for applications such as navigation andguidance(which does not need highly accurate tracking).In comparison with different technologies for indoor tracking , the proposed system is similar to IR tracking systems such as themethod used in [14], wh ich used an IR tracking systemin an AR applicat ion. Cost in USD Accuracy Technology Intersense IS Over15000 1mm Ultrasound 900 Randell’s 150 10-25cm Ultrasound system Ekahau 100-200 1m Wi-Fi Proposed Less than 10 3-4 m light systemIII. Hardware System Design In this section, we will outline the hardware system used forconstructing novel and economical navigation andpositioningsystems using fluorescent lamps. The whole system is dividedinto two parts: the transmitter and the receiver. Thetransmittersends out messages encoded by the fluorescent light whoseflicking is imperceptible to hu man vision, while t hereceiverdetects the light using a photo-detector. In the transmitter section, in formation can be encoded intothe light through arc frequency variation [see Fig. 1(a)].Here,we use a fluorescent lamp for our system since, first, it is highlyused in office build ings and, second, nowadays, it istriggeredby electronic ballast circuits, so there is no need to design acostly circuit for controlling the arc frequency of thelamp,and by simp le modifications on the current widely cheap andavailable circu it, we can furnish our goal.We add a simp lelowcostmicrocontroller chip to control the light frequency fro m 35 to 40 kHz. The receiver circuit [Fig. 1(b)], with a photodetector detectingthe fluore scent light, processes the data that areeventuallyfed into the wearable computer. With the information received,the wearable co mputer can tell the user what thesurroundingsituation is. In the rest of this section, we detail our t ransmitter andreceiver circuits, and then,we exp lain the wearablecomputersystem in terms of how the receiver and other components areintegrated together.A. Transmitter Circuit The hardware for the developed transmitter is shown inFig.2, and the schematic circuit diagram is depicted in Fig.3.Asshown in this figure, the electronic ballast circuit used for the transmission purpose consists of three parts: the ac–dc rectifier,t hedc–ac converter (inverter), and the resonant filter circu it.||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 121
  3. 3. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 Fig: 1Simple schematic scheme of the system. (a) Transceiver. (b) Recei ver. A Novel Light-Sensor-Based Information Transmission System for Indoor Positioning and Navigation 1. Transmitter section Regulated power supply Zigbee RS 232 LCD driver Interfacing GPS RS 232 LCD Receiver interfacing Micro display controller Reset LED indicators Crystal Oscillator Fig 2: Bl ock diagram of transmitter section Fig 3: Trans mitter hardware.||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 122
  4. 4. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 Fig 4: Schematic di agram of transmitter sectionB. Recei ver Circuit The receiver detects the fluorescent light and transforms theanalog signals to the digital ones that can be sent to theuser’s mobile/wearable device. Fig. 5 shows the block diagrams of thereceiver part with a wearable co mputer. The core part ofthis receiver system is the receiver circuit, wh ich is shown in Fig. 6. As can b e seen in Fig. 5, the main parts of the receivercircuit are as follows:a) B andpassfilter:The bandpass filter is designed to removenoise that is received together with the Manchester-codedinformat ion in the light.b) Zero-crossing detector:Th is block converts the analoginput signal to digital signal. Note that only the frequency of the signalcontains information and not itsamplitude.c) Phase-locked loop (PLL):This block converts the incoming dig ital signal to an analog voltage proportional to thefrequ ency of incoming signal. A Novel Light-Sensor-Based Information Transmission System for Indoor Positioning and Navigation 2. Receiver Regulated power supply Push RS 232 Zigbee Buttons Interfacing Reset Micro controller Crystal Oscillator LED indicators Fig 5: Bl ock diagram of recei ver section||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 123
  5. 5. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 Fig 6: Recei ver hardware. Fig 7: Schematic di agram of recei ver section.IV.EXPERIMENTS OFS YSTEMAPPLICATIONS AND RES ULTSIn the previous sections, we discussed the hardware of the indoor navigation system in detail. The indoor system can seamlesslybe activated by simp ly switching fro m the tra-dit ional outdoor GPS system to this indoor system.a GPS signal is no longerreceived, a fluorescent lamp data code is sought after by the wearab le computer. The data codes of the fluorescent lamp aredirectly t ied to a GPS position relat ive to the outdoor GPS read ing. Thus, the indoor fluorescent lamp position is directioncorrelated to an outdoor GPS position.Fig. 9 shows the transition fro m the outdoor environment to the indoors and the screenshots on the HMD at the user’s differentpositions (outdoor and indoors), and Fig. 9 shows the selected screenshots at outdoor and indoor locations. The messages andinformat ion appear on the left bottom corner of the HMD, which does not affect the user’s eyesight range, providing the userwith real-t ime environ mental informat ion. Fig. 10 presents the data flow of the proposed indoor tracking system. What is more, in the large urban indoor environment, a 3-D digital map stored on the wearable computer can bedeveloped to display on the HMD. The user exactly knowshis or her location by watching his or her place on the map,with theposition recognized by the fluorescent light tracking system.||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 124
  6. 6. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8 Fig 9: Selected screenshots from the HMD when a user is at outdoor and indoor locationsThe project “A Novel Light-Sensor-B ased Information Transmission System for Indoor Positioning and Navigation” wasdesigned such that to identifying the different blocks in the organ izat ion by using the Zigbee and GPS modules.The locations aredisplayed on LCD when the person reaches those particular locations.Main Applications, This system can be used by blindpeople in order to know the present location.The system can also be used for tracking the locations Fig 10(a): Indoor tracking displ ay Fig 10(b): Indoor tracking displ ayVI. Conclusion And Future Works This paper has addressed the problem of enabling economical indoor tracking systems, which are similar to GPS,available with seamless transition function fro m outdoor GPS tracking environment to indoor. We have focused on the task ofindoor navigation and positioning, where the particular aspect of the user’s state that is of interest is the user’s physical location.Byusing an economical light sensor to build this indoor tracking system, we have been able to infer the user’s location inanindoor environment. For examp le, we can put the system on both sides of the doors of each room in a building; then, a userwill receive the proper data by entering or leaving the roo m. When data, which are encoded in the fluorescent light, is receivedby the receiver and analyzed by the wearablecomputer, it will provide location and navigation messages. Specifically, this light -sensor-based navigation and tracking system||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 125
  7. 7. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 8is robust and much cheaper than those using electromagnetic ultrasonic sensors. Furthermore, the receiver circu it is light an dsmall, and it can be well suited to wearable computer applications. Aside from thetechnical achieve ments of our work to date, itis significantto point out that the application of this system provides an innovative and economical form o f indoor positioni ngand navigation method. It must be noted though that the proposed system has limited bandwidth and is therefore more suitablefor transmitting text messages to the user’s wearable co mputer rather than images or graphics. Integrating features of all the hardware components used have been developed in it. Presence of every module has beenreasoned out and placed carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced IC’s withthe help of growing technology, the project has been successfully implemented. Thus the project has been successfully designe dand tested. The project “A Novel Light-Sensor-Based Information Transmission System for Indoor Positioning and Navigation” ismainly intended to alert the person through location names displayed on LCD when he enters into a particular location by usin gGPS and Zigbee module. This system consists of a GPS receiver, Zigbee modules which are interfaced to the micro controller.The location names are displayed on LCD. The micro controller is programmed in such a way that depending on the satelliteinformat ion of location the predefined location name will be announced and also displays on the LCD and also GPS receiver. This project can be extended using high efficiency GPS receiver and a GSM module. The GSM module g ives theintimation of the person with this system through SMS.REFERENCES [1] C. Lee, A. Wollets, H. Tan, and A. Pentland, “A wearable haptic navigation guidance system,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Sy mp. Wearable Co mput.,1998. [2] T. Moore, “An introduction to the global positioning system and its applications,” in Proc. Develop. Use Global Positioning Syst., 1994, [3] B. Thomas, V. Demczuk, W. Piekarski, D. Hepworth, and B. Gunther, “A wearable co mputers system with augmented reality to support ter-restrial navigation,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Sy mp. Wearable Co mput., 1998, [4] B. Thomas, B. Close, J. Donoghue, J. Squires, P. D. Bondi, and W. Piekarski, “First person indoor/outdoor augmented reality application: ARQuake,” Pers. Feb. 2002. [5] T. Caudell and D. Mizell, “Augmented reality: An application of heads -up display technology to manual manufacturing processes,” inProc. Hawaii Int. Conf. Syst. Sci., 1992. [6] A.R.Gold ing and N.Lesh,“Indoor navigation using a diverse set of cheap, wearable sensors,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Wearable Co mput., 1999. [7] D. K. Jackson, T. T. Buffaloe, and S. B. Leeb, “Fiat lu x: A fluorescent lamp dig ital transceiver,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34 , May/Jun. 1998. [8] S. Bjork, J. Falk, R. Hansson, and P.Ljungstrand, “Pirates! Using the physical world as a game board,” inProc. Interact, 2001. AUTHORS DETAILS: FIRST AUTHOUR: Dr. S HAIK MEERAVALI,Professor and Head, Depart ment of Electronics and Co mmunicat ion Engg, RRS College of Engineering and Technology,Muthangi, Andhra Pradesh, India. SECOND AUTHOUR: S. VENKATA S EKHAR, Post Graduate Student,Depart ment of Electronics and Communication Engg, RRS College of Engineering and Technology, Muthangi, Patancheru,Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.||Issn 2250-3005(online) || ||December||2012|| Page 126