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  1. 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Mobility in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Based On Collaborative System Snehal H. Kuche, A. R. Deshmukh, S. S. Dorle The goal of VANET research is to develop a vehicularAbstract— Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are the communication system to enable quick and cost efficientspecial application of infrastructure-less wireless Mobile distribution of data. A key component for VANETad-hoc network (MANET). Vehicular ad-hoc networks simulations is a realistic vehicular mobility model that(VANET) allow envisaging a new way to access contents ensures that to real deployments. In VANETs the high nodebased on epidemic data dissemination, and increasing mobility causes frequent topology change which greatlysystem scalability. In this paper, we present a collaborative affects the network performance. The movement of the nodessystem for content diffusion and retrieval among vehicles. and its position in the topology is represented by MobilityThis system also relies on multicast epidemic dissemination Models which is key components of simulation for bothof messages over an adhoc network and exploits vehicles MANETs and VANETs routing protocol. Vehicular ad-hocmobility and their local storage capabilities. Develop a networks (VANETs) are considered to be the specialmobility model based on collaborative system and also application of infrastructure-less wireless Mobile ad-hocpresent the epidemic and SPAWN Algorithm for network (MANET). Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) [1]disseminating data includes road intersection, number of allow envisaging a new way to access contents based onparticipating vehicles and number of packets sent per epidemic data dissemination, costs for both the user and thesecond by each vehicle. In this system, contents stored into content publisher, and also increasing system scalability. Ina node are made available and eventually transferred to ad hoc network the VANET not only Maintain but alsoother vehicles that are wishing to retrieve them. Mobility update information on routing between all nodes of a givenmodels play an important role in VANET simulations. The network at all times [3]. One of the most importantsimulation shows that our developed mobility model is parameters in simulating ad-hoc networks is the noderealistic and can adapt well with proposed Algorithm mobility. It is important to use a realistic mobility model soThe paper work defines general communication that results from the simulation correctly reflect therequirements of future data dissemination applications and real-world performance of a VANET. A realistic mobilityinvestigates various wireless carriers that are important to model [2] should consist of a realistic topological map whichachieve communication in between vehicles and between reflects different densities of roads and different categories ofvehicles and nearby infrastructure. Analyze several future streets with various speed limits.applications related to the MDDV field and describe theircommunication requirements. The end result of this work isguidelines to help application developers to epidemicalgorithms and SPAWN Algorithm to applicationperformance requirements. Index Terms— Epidemic data dissemination, inter vehiclecommunication, reliability, vehicular ad hoc network. INTRODUCTIONVehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) communication hasrecently become an increasingly popular topic in the area ofwireless networking. Manuscript received June 20, 2012. Snehal H. Kuche, Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science& Engineering, Email:snehuk.6@gmail.com, G.H.Raisoni College ofEngineering, Nagpur-440016, India. A. R. Deshmukh, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics &Telecommunication Engineering, Email:atul14383@gmail.com, Fig.1 Structure of Vehicular Ad-Hoc NetworkG.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur-440016, India, S. S. Dorle, Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering, Email:s_dorle@yahoo.co.uk, G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Fig.1 shows Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network is a form of MobileNagpur-440016, India ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside unit (RSU) equipment. Collaborative system refers to working jointly with others in groups especially in an intellectual endeavor to put 66 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  2. 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012together content. The key feature of collaborative content is Once the gossiping starts between vehicles so thethat it is created, reviewed, refined, enhanced and shared by downloaded files scattered. In SPAWN, UDP gossipinteractions and contributions of a number of people. messages are used to disseminate content availability, whileCollaborative content applications are providing new means data packets are sent using TCP. The system propose, allfor self-expression, individual creativity and development messages are sent using UDP multicast packets, allow all the[4]. A collaborative system for content diffusion and nodes in the neighborhood to observe and cache theretrieval among vehicles that relies on multicast epidemic exchanged data.dissemination of messages over an adhoc network and Urban Multi-hop Broadcast (UMB) supports directionalexploits vehicles mobility and their local storage capabilities. broadcast in VANETs [3]. UMB tries to improve reliabilityUse content-based predictor to complete collaborative data of broadcast by alleviating a hidden terminal problem[5]. In this system, contents stored into a node are made through an RTS/CTS-style handshake, and broadcast stormsavailable and eventually transferred to other vehicles that are through black-burst signals to select a forwarding node that iswishing to retrieve them. Data dissemination concerns the farthest from the sender using location information.transport of information to intended receivers. Vehicles In [8] Epidemic algorithms follow the paradigm of natureexchange information with other vehicles within their short by applying simple rules to spread information by just havingradio range, and ad hoc wireless networks which are used to a local view of the environment. Epidemic algorithm refers topropagate information. Collaborative content is impacting network protocols that allow rapid dissemination ofthe social fabric of society; it has resulted in significant information from a source through purely local interactions.changes in information provision and has provided new [7] A class of algorithms, called epidemic algorithms, haveparticipation possibilities affecting the different roles. been successfully used in disseminating information in theCollaborative content also brings many challenges and context of various other systems. These systems are usuallyproblems, which arise from the openness of participation. decentralized and distributed systems such as replicatedThese challenges need to be addressed before the benefits databases. Messages initiated from the source are rebroadcastarising from the potential of collaborative content approaches by neighboring nodes. Extending outward hop by hop untilcan be realized. the entire network is reached. Multihop ad hoc vehicle-to-vehicle communication, together with communication between II.LITURATURE REVIEW vehicles and fixed wireless infostations (so called roadsideThere is a rich literature available on mobility models and the units), will enable both public safety and commercialanalysis of routing protocols on mobility models. The applications. The data traffic that will drive these mobile adopportunities for VANET are growing rapidly with many hoc vehicular networks range from short but critical publicvehicle manufacturers and their suppliers actively supporting safety data with very tight latency constraints, to largeresearch and development. Vehicular ad-hoc networks amounts of bulk ―download‖ data with relatively lenient(VANET) allow envisaging a new way to access contents latency constraints, to moderate amounts of near real-timebased on epidemic data dissemination, as well as tearing data with somewhat tight latency constraints. Allowabledown the costs for both the user and the content publisher, latency is especially important in safety applications where itand increasing system scalability. The system is not only must be very short (milliseconds); since a safety message isfeasible, reliable but also it can be used as a peer-to-peer useful only for a short period of time and any large delaydownload accelerator for improving client-server access. In might not allow the vehicle to respond in time. In order to[2], the design and the evaluation of a collaborative system allow a moving vehicle to establish a connection with other/sfor content diffusion and retrieval among traveling vehicles. vehicles, a certain amount of time is needed and that is calledThis system relies on multicast epidemic dissemination of connection set up time.messages and exploits vehicles mobility and their local The communication service can be ―Connectionstorage capabilities. Necessary requirements and key oriented‖ where the connection should be set before thecomponents for the generation of mobility models for information transmission and maintained until its end, orVANETs have been given in [3]. The framework presented ―Connectionless‖ where each individual message sent fromcovers most of the required entities and their characteristics the source contains the destination’s address and reaches thefor the generation of realistic mobility models for VANETs. recipient without the need for establishing a channel.The impact of different mobility models on the performance However, in connectionless services there is no guarantee ofof MANETs routing protocols is given in [4]. message reception. Therefore, the connectionless In [6], the authors propose SPAWN, a cooperative system communication service can be divided into acknowledgedfor content delivery and sharing in VANETs. In this and unacknowledged services. In acknowledged services thecooperative system the presence of infrastructure nodes transmitter must receive an acknowledgement from theplaced at regular intervals along the freeway that provides receiver to ensure correct message delivery, where theconnectivity to the Internet. The cooperative system based message is retransmitted in case of a negativevehicle structure stored data as per requirement and properly acknowledgement or when no acknowledgement is receivedsave data inside the vehicle Data storage memory. When a within a certain time. However, in case of unacknowledgedvehicle wants to download a particular file, it requests the service, since there is no guarantee of message reception andcontent to the nearest gateway and starts to download pieces. the latency is very low, the message is always repeated toAfter getting out of range, the vehicle starts gossiping the increase the reliability. For safety messages that mostly haveavailability of the content and exchanges pieces of the file. a broadcast nature acknowledgement is neither possible nor wanted; but for messages that use point-to-point 67 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  3. 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012communication acknowledgement together withre-transmissions can be used to reduce the packet loss rate.Summary: From the literature survey, it is observed that acollaborative system for content diffusion and retrieval invehicular network. Vehicular adhoc network that is based ona data oriented protocol that offers a mechanism fordownloading contents in a peer-to-peer fashion overshort-range ad-hoc networks. This system delivers goodperformance when used to disseminate contents fromroad-side stations. This system gives good result whilevehicles are communicating with each other and share data asper the requirement. Vehicular adhoc network allow datadissemination which helps to increasing system scalability. III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREMobility models are used for simulation of routing Protocolsso, it is very important to use a mobility model that has mostof the required components of the real world scenarios. Fig.3. System Implementation Architecture System implementation has been split into three concurrent activities (Fig.3): the local agent, the receiver agent and the broadcast agent [9]. The local agent is in charge of managing the GUI and reacts to user’s interactions, searching the local database for Fig.2 Single Infostation sending data to all vehicles requested contents and inserting wish and request packetsFig.2 shows that where a single infostation is sending data to into the broadcast queue until the desired data are retrieved.all vehicles traveling in the different direction along a city The receiver agent processes incoming packets. Wisharea. Here efficiently disseminating information from a requests are matched against the local database: for eachroadside infostation to a dense unidirectional linear highway matching manifest file, an offer message is inserted into thenetwork, as shown in Figure 2.Therefore both the throughput broadcast queue. If a request message, belonging to a knownand latency that can be achieved using efficient multihop manifest file, has been received and a compatible set ofvehicle-to-vehicle collaboration. In the case of the vehicular fragments is available, some of them (randomly picked) arenetwork, the implementation of random linear network added to the broadcast queue, e.g. depending on its numbercoding is particularly straightforward. Each packet in the of empty slots. When a data message is received, thenetwork consists of simply a linear combination of all of the contained fragment is temporarily quarantined.source packets. Every vehicle maintains a buffer containing The broadcast agent is in charge of sending packets to theall of the linearly independent packets that it has received. neighborhood. In order to guarantee a fair access to theWhen a vehicle chooses to transmit, it generates a set of medium to all the vehicles in range, a credit system israndom mixing coefficients, uses those coefficients to employed. A one second timer periodically awakes thecombine the packets in its buffer, and transmits the result broadcast agent that estimates the available number ofover the channel. credits. Road is the main entity for the development of mobilitytraces or maps for any mobility model used for VANETs. IV PROPOSED SCHEMEThe roads may have single lane or multiple lanes. In singlelane roads there is usually one lane for one direction of Objectives of study:traffic. On the other hand, in multiple lane roads there are Collaborative Content refers to working jointly with others /multiple paths for vehicles to move on. The number of streets in groups especially in an intellectual endeavor to putand intersections in a road also affects the speed of vehicles. together content. Hence vehicles use standard to store and-The velocity of a vehicle also affects the motion of other forward routing. In such a system, each vehicle will maintainnearby vehicles moving in same lane or moving in side-by a buffer of all of the packets that it has received. When alane. The velocities of the vehicles are high and normally vehicle chooses to transmit, it will randomly select one ofeach lane is assigned a pre defined velocity limits. those packets. Since coordination among vehicles is undesirable, each vehicle will select a packet to transmit independently of all other vehicles. Implementation of collaborative system for area wise like content management system. A collaborative system for content diffusion and retrieval among vehicles that relies on multicast epidemic 68 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  4. 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012dissemination of messages over an adhoc network and When a host S wants to send a message to another host D. Sexploits vehicles mobility and their local storage capabilities. passes the message to its neighbor hosts and they do the sameIn this system, contents stored into a node are made available until the message reaches D. If there is a partition of theand eventually transferred to other vehicles that are wishing network on the way to D. The message is passed throughoutto retrieve them. This system can reduce costs both for the the network and will eventual received by D with highcontent publisher, by cutting down infrastructure needs, and probability shows in fig.4. Each host stores messages in afor the user, by avoiding or limiting connectivity expenses. buffer (hash table), indexed by the unique ID of each Data delivery mechanisms define for moving message.information through the network. Messages are stored and In an epidemic algorithm, all system processes are potentiallyforwarded as opportunities present themselves. When a involved in information dissemination. Basically, everymessage is forwarded to another node, a copy may remain process buffers every message it receives up to a certainwith the original and be forwarded again later to improve buffer capacity b and forwards that message a limited numberreliability. Some simple implementations, e.g., two nodes of times t. Messages initiated from the source are rebroadcastexchange data whenever they can communicate and also by neighboring nodes, extending outward hop by hop untilwork well if the data needs to be propagated to everybody. A the entire network is reached. The process forwards themessage holder in the active state runs the full protocol to message each time to a randomly selected set of processes ofactively propagate the message while a message holder in the limited size f, the fan-out of the dissemination. Many variantspassive state only transmits the message if it hears some older of epidemic algorithms exist and are typically distinguishedmessage version. The active propagation can help populate by the values of b, t, and f. These parameters may be fixedthe message, move the message closer to the destination independently of the number n of processes in the system, inregion or update dissemination status. The passive updating which case the load imposed on every process remainsserves to eliminate false/obsolete information only. Every bounded [10].vehicle stores whatever it overhears since this is almost freeexcept occupying memory buffers. A vehicle drops a Data Generation Phase:message when the vehicle leaves the passive state during the 1. Vehicle will pass through the area for the first time.forwarding phase, leaves the active state during the 2. The area server will give the information to the routes.propagation phase or the message expiration time elapses. 3. The vehicle will store all the information inside its To provide a retrieving multimedia content memory.available either on publicly accessible Internet servers orshared by nearby vehicles. Therefore each vehicle will Data Evaluation Phase:maintain a buffer of all of the packets that it has received. 1. Vehicle will pass through the area.When a vehicle chooses to transmit, it will randomly select 2. It will give the area code & compare the code with itsone of those packets. Since coordination among vehicles is internal memory.undesirable, each vehicle will select a packet to transmit. A 3. If data is available then depending upon routing table tomessage holder can be in either one of two dissemination route the vehicle properly.states: the active state and passive state or not eligible totransmit at all. SPAWN Algorithm MDDV (Mobility-Centric Data DisseminationAlgorithm for Vehicular Networks) is a diffusion algorithm The goal of this protocol is to design and build a data-centricwhich considers that vehicles do not have the positions of software infrastructure. Simplify the structuring andtheir surrounding vehicles, contrary to other geographical implementation of robust and efficient autonomousalgorithms. The road system is modeled as a directed graph applications across multiple heterogeneous networks.where nodes represent intersections, and connections road Protocol includes quality-based source and alternative modelsegments. A weight is associated with each connection to selection and complex event detection. SPAWN has the samereflect corresponding traffic density and distance. MDDV generic structure of any swarming protocol [7].uses a forwarding path specified as the route with the smallest In these algorithm Spawners not only interested in thesum of weights from a source to a ―destination region‖ in the particular file listen to gossip messages of that file anddirected graph. forward them with a low probability but also interested in listen to those gossip messages and forward them with aEpidemic Dissemination Parameters higher probability after stamping the route-list of the packetEpidemic algorithm refers to network protocols that allow with their own id. An Interested spawner who is currentlyrapid dissemination of information from a source through downloading a file will generate Gossip messages onpurely local interactions [8]. completion of downloading a new piece. So the car arrival process at the access point follows a Poisson distribution. When a car comes within range of the gateway, it starts downloading random pieces of the file. Fig.4: Message delivery from node S to D 69 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  5. 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Fig.5: Evolution of a file in a node using the SPAWN AlgorithmFig5.shows that (1) A car arrives in the range of a gateway,(2) initiates a download (3) downloads a piece of the file.(4)After getting out of range,(5) starts to gossip with its Fig.7 (a)neighbors about content availability (6) exchanges pieces ofthe file, thereby getting a larger portion of the file as opposedto waiting for the next gateway to resume the download. SIMULATION RESULT Fig.7(b) Simulation Result. Fig.7 (a) and Fig.(b) shows simulation result where the server node broadcast the message to the vehicles. Server Fig. 6(a) disseminates information about the particular area. The vehicles (node) receive the information from server and then simultaneously transmit the data to the server. One centralized and other sub server is created for data dissemination. Fig. 6(b)Fig. 6(a) and 6(b) shows the different parameters such asacceleration, velocity, power dissipation and speed are usingin collaborative system. We considered the followingparameters: number of participating vehicles, number of Fig.8 Delay outputpackets per second sent by each vehicle, number of availablecontents, and average size of contents. Fig.8 shows the delay output when disseminate data to every node. 70 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  6. 6. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 circulating vehicles participate to the system and adapt the number of messages sent each second to their neighborhood. This strategy improves a lot the overall results, smoothing down the differences induced by the mobility model. This system can be useful for reducing costs both for the content publisher, by cutting down infrastructure needs, and for the user. Since content is useful only if it has been totally received, content size influences the dissemination much more than the number of available contents. Examine that how vehicles that want different data flows should cooperate with one another .In future we use the Security using Encryption and Routing protocol. Fig.9 power dissipation in between vehiclesFig.9 shows the simulation result that power dissipation in Referencesbetween vehicles and time of completion of each wave at thefarthest node in the network and time of transmission of the [1] P. Hong, H. Park, and C. Kang, ―A data forwarding Scheme Based onfirst packet of each wave for the Network. Therefore a Predictable Parameters in VANET,‖ in Proc. KICS, pp. 231, Feb.collaborative system for content diffusion and retrieval 2010.among vehicles and contents stored into a node are made [2] Kun-chan Lan and Chien-Ming Chou ―Realistic Mobility Models foravailable and eventually transferred to other vehicles that are Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) Simulations‖ 978-1-4244-2858-8/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE.wishing to retrieve them. [3] Muhammad Alam, Muhammad Sher S.Afaq Husain ―VANETs Mobility Model Entities and Its Impact‖ IEEE-ICET 2008 Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 18-19 October, 2008. [4] Mark Johnson, Luca De Nardis, and Kannan Ramchandran ―Collaborative Content Distribution for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks‖ National Science Foundation under grants ANI-0326503 and CCR-0330514. [5] Ajazur Rahman ―Collaborative Content Development‖ 7th International CALIBER-2009, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, February 25-27,© INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. [6] Shirshanka Das, Alok Nandan, Giovanni Pau―SPAWN: A Swarming Protocol for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks‖ VANET’04, October 1, 2004, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ACM 1-58113-922-5/04/0010 [7] P. Hong, H. Park, and C. Kang, ―A data forwarding Scheme Based on Predictable Parameters in VANET,‖ in Proc. KICS, pp. 231, Feb. 2010 [8] Tim Daniel Hollerung Peter Bleckmann ― Epidemic Algorithms‖ August, 4th, 2004 Organizer: Christian Schindelhauer. [9] Mert Akdere et al., ―A comparison of epidemic algorithms in wireless Fig.10 sending a variable number of packets per second. sensor networks‖, Elsevier Computer Communications, vol. 29, no. 13, August 2006, pp. 2450-2557. [10] Paul Tennent, Malcolm Hall, Barry Brown, Matthew Chalmers, ScottFig.10 Shows the simulation result assuming that all Sherwood ―Three Applications for Mobile Epidemic Algorithmscirculating vehicles participates to the system and adapt the ‖ MobileHCI’05, September 19–22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria.number of messages sent each second to their neighborhood. [11] C. Barberis and G. Malnati: ―Design and Evaluation of a CollaborativeAdapting the packet transmission rate makes the system System for Content Diffusion and Retrieval in Vehicular Networks‖ IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 57,almost independent of the mobility model used. No. 1, February 2011 [12] T. Leinm¨uller, E. Schoch, and F. Kargl, ―Position Verficiation Approaches for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks,‖ Wireless CONCLUSION Communications,IEEE, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 16 –21, october 2006.Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are considered to bethe special application of infrastructure-less wireless Mobilead-hoc network (MANET). As mobility model is animportant tool for simulation and analysis so, VehicularAd-Hoc Network (VANET) is surging in popularity, inwhich vehicles constitute the mobile nodes in the network.Due to the prohibitive cost of deploying and implementingsuch a system, most research in VANET relies on simulationsfor evaluation. Using spawn algorithm,some parameters areusing like Velocity, Coordinates,Packet receiving, Floodingand power dissipation. These Parameters are use for thevehicle, when vehicle will start to finding the neighbournode and then send data to its neighbour node.Then all datadessiminate and receiving packet fom the servser node. All 71 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE