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  1. 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Compressed XML Database and Query Evaluation over XML Databases Vijay.S. Gulhane, Dr. M.S. Ali Structured information could be content and some indicationAbstract— Extensible Markup Language (XML) [XML 1.0 of what role that content plays. XML specifies the structure(Second Edition) W3C Recommendation, October (2000)] is and content of a document. A markup language is aproposed as a standardized data format designed for mechanism to identify structures in a document. XML has aspecifying and exchanging data on the Web. With the simple, flexible text format. It is a simplified subset ofproliferation of mobile devices, such as palmtop computers, as a SGML. Here is an XML snippet:means of communication in recent years, it is reasonable toexpect that in the foreseeable future, a massive amount ofXML data will be generated and exchanged betweenapplications in order to perform dynamic computations over the <Student SID = “S1234”>Web. However, XML is by nature verbose, since terseness in <LastName>Smith</LastName>XML markup is not considered a pressing issue from the design <FirstName>Joe</FirstName>perspective [Smith S. Nair et al]. In practice, XML documents are <MInitial>M</MInitial>usually large in size as they often contain much redundant data. <Address>620 12th Ave, Coralville</Address>The size problem hinders the adoption of XML since it </Student>substantially increases the costs of data processing, data storage,and data exchanges over the Web. As the common generic textcompressors, such as Gzip, Bzip2, WinZip, PKZIP, or MPEG-7(BiM) , are not able to produce usable XML compressed data, XML examplemany XML specific compression technologies have been recentlyproposed. The essential idea of these technologies is that, by In the survey of XML-conscious compressors it has beenutilizing the exposed structure information in the input XML found that the existing technologies indeed trade betweendocument during the compression process, they pursue twoimportant goals at the same time. First, they aim at achieving a these two goals. For example, XMill [H. Liefke et al] needsgood compression ratio and time compared to the generic text to perform a full decompression prior to processing queriescompressors mentioned above. Second, they aim at generating a over compressed documents, resulting in a heavy burden oncompressed XML document that is able to support efficient system resources such as CPU processing time and memoryevaluation of queries over the data.. The aim of this paper is to consumption. At the other extreme, some technologies canintroduce the system which has the ability of compressing the avoid XML data decompression in some cases, butXML document and retrieving the requiredinformation from the compressed version with less unfortunately only at the expense of the compressiondecompression required according to queries. performance. For example, XGrind [P.M.Tolani et al] The system first compressed the XML document by proposed adopts a homomorphic transformation strategy to transformalgorithm. The compressed file is divided into different XML data into a specialized compressed format and supportrelational databases doing so there is no need to decompress direct querying on compressed data, but only at the expense ofthe complete file for retrieving the results of any query. Only the compression ratio; thus the XML size problem is notthe required information is decompressed and submitted to the satisfactorily resolved. In regard to the importance ofuser. The average compression ratio of the designed compressoris considered competitive compared to other queriable XML achieving a good level of performance in both compressioncompressors. Based on several experiments, the query and querying, it has been found that the current research workprocessor part had the ability to answer different kinds of on XML compression does not adequately analyze the relatedqueries that require retrieving information from several features.compressed XML documents. 2. Need for CompressionCategories and Subject Descriptors As evident from the snippet , XML representations are veryCompression Techniques, large and can be up to ten times as large as equivalent binaryGeneral Terms representations[Al Hamadani, Baydaa (2011) et al]. ConsiderCompression , Decompression , query the following: 1. There is lot of "redundant" data in XML documents,Index Terms—XML, Compression ratio, compression including white space, and element and attribute names.time, decompression time 2. Its self-describing and document size is larger than other I. INTRODUCTION formats. This will affect query processing.XML: An Overview 3. As a self-describing format, XML brings flexibility, butXML or extensible markup language is a markup language compromises efficiency.for documents containing structured information. 4. Most XML documents are stored in file systems, so we need an efficient way to store file-based XML. 5. XML is the lingua franca of web services, thus necessitating large volumes of XML data to be sent over 58 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  2. 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012networks. Reducing data size helps conserve network Input: XML Filebandwidth. Output: Compressed XML File3. Desirable Features of XML Compression BeginFollowing are some desirable quality features for XML 1. Open XML file.compression technology. 2. Store Current time instance.I. Effective Compression. 3. If Compressor is enabledii. Expressive Query Language and Efficient Querying 3.1 Parse the complete XML file with SAX parserEngine. 3.2 Compress the file by removing comments, extra spacesiii. Minimal User Intervention and Auxiliary Structures and line breaks while preserving the content from the CDATA lock. II. PROPOSED XML COMPRESSION METHODOLOGY 3.3 Remove XML Comments 3.4 Remove multiple whitespace charactersThe XML Compressor supports compression of XML 3.5 Remove inter-tag whitespace charactersdocuments. The compression is based on tokenizing the 3.6 Remove unnecessary tag attributes such as quotesXML tags. The assumption is that any XML document has a 3.7 Simplify existing doctyperepeated number of tags and so tokenizing these tags gives 3.8 Remove optional attributes from script taga considerable amount of compression. Therefore the 3.9 Remove optional attributes from style tagcompression achieved depends on the type of input 3.10 Remove optional attributes from link tagdocument; the larger the tags and the lesser the text content, 3.11 Remove optional attributes from form tagthen the better the compression. The goal of compression is to 3.12 Remove optional attributes from input tagreduce the size of the XML document without losing the 3.13 Remove values from Boolean tag attributesstructural and hierarchical information of the DOM tree. The 3.14 Remove java script from inline event handlerscompressed stream contains all the "useful" information to 3.15 Replace http:// with // inside tag attributescreate the DOM tree back. The compressed stream can also be 3.16 Replace https:// with // inside tag attributesgenerated from the SAX events. XML Parser for Java can 3.17 Preserve original line breaksalso compress XML documents. Using the compression 3.18 Remove spaces around provided tagsfeature, an in memory DOM tree or the SAX events generated 3.19 Compress inline css.from an XML document are compressed to generate a binary 3.20 Compress inline java scriptcompressed output. The compressed stream generated from 4. Create and Store the resulting Compressed XML file inDOM and SAX are compatible, that is, the compressed current working directory.stream generated from SAX can be used to generate the DOM 5. Get Current time instance and subtract it from the previouslytree and vice versa. stored time instance to compute the total compression time required. III. XML SERIALIZATION AND COMPRESSION 6. Compute the Compression ratio by considering the sizes of Original and Compressed files.An XML document is compressed into a stream by means of Endthe serialization of an in-memory DOM tree. When a large Figure 1: XML Compression AlgorithmXML document is parsed and a DOM tree is created inmemory corresponding to it, it may be difficult to satisfy With default settings your compressed layout should bememory requirements and this can affect performance. The 100% identical to the original in all browsers (onlyXML document is compressed into a stream and stored in an characters that are completely safe to remove are removed).in-memory DOM tree. This can be expanded at a later time Optional settings (that should be safe in 99% cases) wouldinto a DOM tree without performing validation on the XML give you extra savings. Optionally all unnecessary quotes candata stored in the compressed stream. The compressed stream be removed from tag attributes (attributes that consist from acan be treated as a serialized stream, but the information in single word: <div id="example"> would become <divthe stream is more controlled and managed, compared to id=example>). This usually gives around 3% page sizethe compression implemented by Javas default serialization. decrease at no performance cost but might break strictThere are two kinds of XML compressed streams: validation so this option is disabled by default. About extra 3% page size can be saved by removing inter-tag spaces. It isDOM based compression: The in-memory DOM tree, fairly safe to turn this option on unless you rely on spacescorresponding to a parsed XML document, is serialized, for page formatting. Even if you do, you can alwaysand a compressed XML output stream is generated. This preserve required spaces with  or &nbsp;. This optionserialized stream regenerates the DOM tree when read back. has no performance impact. The following figure 2 shows the complete architecture ofSAX based compression: The compressed stream is Propose implemented research methodologygenerated when an XML file is parsed using a SAX parser.SAX events generated by the SAX parser are handled by theSAX compression utility, which handles the SAX eventsto generate a compressed stream. In addition to the abovemethodology the implemented proposed compressionmethodology compresses XML documents and works asfollows:XML Compression 59 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  3. 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Figure 3: Compression of shakespear.xml Figure 2: Complete Architecture of Proposed Implemented Figure 4 shows the screenshot of the XML Compressor where Research Methodology SwissProt.xml is compressed. The original size of file was 94460066 bytes. After compression the file size is 84775077In the proposed methodology initially all the XML bytes. The time required for compression is 25359 ms.documents are compressed using XML SAX parser. Thegraphical user interface is designed from where user can selecttheir XMLdocuments that he/she want to compress. Thecompressed XML file will be created in the current workingdirectory with name Compressed XML.xml . as per the filethat has been selected by the user. IV. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND SETUPWe compare the performance of our approach with that of thefollowing four compressors :(1) gzip, which is a widely used generic text compressor,(2) XMill, which is a well-known XML-conscious Figure 4: Compression of SwissProt.xmlcompressor, and(3) XGrind, which is a well known XML-conscious Figure 5 shows the screenshot of the XML Compressorcompressor that supports querying of compressed XMLdata. where dblp.xml is compressed. The original size of file(4) XCQ - Querriable compressor. was 92301286 bytes. After compression the file size isAll the experiments were run on a notebook computer .To 644495524 bytes. The time required for compression is 25547evaluate the performance of the compressors, we used five ms.datasets that are commonly used in XML research (see theexperiments in [W. Y. Lam, W. Ng, may 2003et al, Liefke, H.& Suciu, D. 2000. XMill) SwissProt, DBLP,ebay, yahoo, andShakespeare.We now briefly introduce each dataset.1. Ebay,yahoo : It consists of many XML documents thatare used in online shopping processes through differente-shopping and auction web sites. These documents areconverted from database systems and they contain manyempty elements with neither data nor sub-elements inside them2. Swissprot is the complete description of the DNA sequenceis described in the XML document Figure 5: Compression of dblp.xml3. DBLP is a collection of the XML documents freelyavailable in the DBLP archive . that illustrates different Figure 6 shows the screenshot of the XML Compressorpapers published in proceeding of conferences and where yahoo.xml is compressed. The original size of filejournals in the field of computer science. was 25327 bytes. After compression the file size is 226944. Shakespeare is a collection of the plays of William bytes. The time required for compression is 125 ms.Shakespeare in XML [AlHamadani, Baydaa (2011) et al].The first four datasets given above are regarded asdata-centric as the XML documents have a very regularstructure, whereas the last one is regarded as documentcentric as the XML documents have a less regular structure Figure 3 shows the screenshot of the XML Compressorwhere shakespear.xml is compressed. The original size offile was 7894787 bytes. After compression the file size is3947393 bytes. The time required for compression is 3047 ms 60 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  4. 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 time. All the numerical data used to construct the graphs can be found in the graph in(W. Y. Lam, W. Ng, et al) A. Compression Ratio : The compression ratios are calculated for above discussed results by using the following equation. There are two different expressions that are commonly used to define the Compression Ratio (CR) of a compressed XML document. Size of compressed file X 8 CR1 = bits/byte Size of Original file Size of compressed file CR2 = 1− X 100 Size of original file Figure 6: Compression of yahoo.xml The first compression ratio, denoted CR1, expresses the number of bits required to represent a byte. Using CR1 aFigure 7 shows the screenshot of the XML compressor better performing compressor achieves a relatively lowerwhere ebay.xml is compressed. The original size of file was value. On the other hand, the second compression ratio,35469 bytes. After compression the file size is 34281 bytes. denotedCR2, expresses the fraction of the input documentThe time required for compression is 141 ms. eliminated. Using CR2, a better performing compressor achieves a relatively higher value. Graph 2 shows the compression ratios that are achieved on the above-mentioned three datasets expressed in CR1 (bits/byte).Both XMill and XCQ consistently achieve a better compression ratio than gzip. Our approach compression ration is better than XGrind and comparable with XCQ.The compression ratio achieved is relatively high for data-centric documents (i.e., SwissProt, DBLP, Ebay,Yahoo) and relatively low for document-centric documents (i.e., Shakespeare). This can be explained by the fact that the Shakespeare document does not have a regular structure, and therefore XMill , XCQ and our approach cannot take much advantage of the document structure during Figure 7: Compression of ebay.xml compression.The following graph 1 shows the computed values of CR1, 16CR2 and the compression time required for the implemented 14methodology. 12 10 60 8 50 6 DBLP 40 4 CR1 Swiss port 30 2 20 0 Shakespeare 10 CR2 0 Extracting… Image… Shakespeare Yahoo DBLP Ebay SwissPort Compression Time Graph 2 Compression Ratio for different data set B. Compression Time :Graph 1: Comparison of CR1, CR2 and Compression time on various datasets. Following Graph 3 shows the compression time (expressed in seconds) required by the compressors to compress the XML V. COMPRESSION PERFORMANCE documents. From the observation it is clear that for our approach, we are getting better compression time asWe now present an empirical study of our XML compressor compared to other queribale XML compressor. It is clear thatperformance with respect to compression ratio, compression gzip out performs the other compressors in this experiment. 61 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  5. 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012XMill had a slightly longer compression time than gzip, andXCQ in turn had a slightly longer compression time thanXMill. Our approach has slightly more compression timethan Xmill but lesser compression time than a quriable XCQand Xgrind. The time overhead can be explained by the factthat both XMill and XCQ introduce a pre-compression phasefor re-structuring the XML documents to help the maincompression process. The grouping by enclosing tagheuristic runs faster than the grouping method used in XCQand thus XMill runs slightly faster than XCQ. It should benoted, however, that the data grouping result generated byXMill may not be as precise as our PPG data streams. Thiscomplicates the search for related data values of an XMLfragment in the separated data containers in a compressedfile. In addition, the compression buffer window size inXMill is set at 8 MB, which is optimized solely for bettercompression [H. Liefke and D. Suciu. XMill et al]. Such a Figure 8: Representation of article information in RDBlarge chunk of compressed data is costly in full or partial extracted from compressed dblp file.decompression. On the other hand, the compression timerequired by XGrind is generally much longer than that The queries are executed on the intermediate RDBrequired by gzip, XMill, XCQ and our proposed approach. representation and relevant results of query are returned andXGrind uses Huffman coding and thus needs an extra parse again represented in the form of decompressed XML.of the input XML document to collect statistics for a better Consider the dblp dataset. It is divided into variouscompression ratio, resulting in almost double the intermediate RDB representations after compression. TheseCompression time required in a generic compressor RDB consists of information about articles, international proceedings, phd thesis, master thesis. This information is represented in separate RDB. This information is extracted from the compressed XML file. Because of these representations the user query evaluation will be faster. One more advantage is during decompression. It is not needed to decompress the whole dataset. The partial decompression of the compressed dataset is achieved by using this methodology. The above figure 8 shows the RDB representation of article records extracted from the compressed XML dataset. Graph 3 : Compression time for different data sets for different techniques. C. Implemented Research Methodology Figure 9: Representation of international proceedingsAs discussed in previous the compressed XML file is converted information in RDB extracted from compressed dblp file.into relational database. The complete architecture is shown infigure 2. There are some disadvantages and limitations of It can be observed that it contains the information regardingintermediate representation of compressed data before author, title, journal, volume and publication year of article.decompression for other existing compression techniques. In the So any user query can be fired on this representation and theimplemented methodology as per the compressed XML file it relevant results will be returned to the user. It supports any typeis divided and represented by the RDB. By doing so the results of query it will not be restricted to only one type of query. It isare provided in faster way without any restrictions on memory also observed that this representation consist of more thanand size of data. Any type of query is supported in this 9000 records. So there will not be any restriction on totaltechnique. The type of query is not restricted to aggregation number of records as it is in earlier techniques.queries. Figure9 shows the representation of international proceedings information extracted from the compressed dblp dataset. As shown it consists of information regarding author, title and publication year of proceedings. It consists of more than 8000 records. 62 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  6. 6. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 The following figure 10 shows the algorithm for XML toRDB conversion process. Initially node list is created by Query Performance:using SAX parser. This node list consists of nodes these arenothing but the sub tags in the main tag. Consider while The performance of the proposed implemented methodologyretrieving the article information from the dblp dataset the is measured by using various performance metrics. From thearticle tag is the root node. The node items belonging to the query perspective, proposed implemented methodology isarticle tag are nothing but its child tags. So the node list will compared with XGrind and Native approach on the basis ofconsists of items namely author, title, journal,volume and query response times. These metrics are defined below:year. After generating the node list the values of each node Query Response Time (QRT): Total time required to executeitem will be extracted from the XML document and it will be the query.placed in the separate field in the RDB. Query Speedup Factor (QSF): Normalizes the query response time of Native and XGrind with respect to proposedInput: XML File methodology, that is,Outpt: RDBBegin 1. Open an XML file. 2.Establish the connection with RDB using JDBC ODBC drivers and created DSN. 3. Generate node list for root node tag. 4. For each node item in node list repeat the following steps 4.1 Extract the values of node items from the XML document. 4.2 Insert these values in their respective fields in the RDB 4.3 Update RDB 5. Close the connection with RDB. As indicated in above algorithm the user query is executed on End the compressed XML‟s relational database representation. The query results are provided in terms of partially Figure 10: Algorithm for XML to RDB conversion. decompressed XML document. For example, In case of article queries the partial decompression result is provided in D. Querying Compressed XML and Query „partialart.xml‟ file. The implemented proposed methodology Evaluation Proposed Methodology is evaluated on the basis of query response time, query As discussed in previous section, proposed XML speedup factor and the decompression time. The following compression methodology converts the compressed table 1 shows the query performance measure in terms of XML into its relational database representation. This query response time and query speedup factor. approach provides an advantage of executing any type of query as well as decompression time will be less as there are multiple relational database representations for single compressed XML file. Due to these representations the query search space is reduced and relevant results are returned as a result of decompression by using the concept of partial decompression. The following figure 11 shows an algorithm used for partial decompression of compressed XML data.Input: Compressed XML Relational DatabaseRepresentations Output: Partially Decompressed XML DataBegin1. Create an instance of Document Builder factory.2. Create Document Builder. Table 1: Query performance3. Create new document.4. Create root element. It can be observed from the above table great speedup factor is achieved by using the proposed implemented5. Establish database connectivity. methodology.6. Retrieve the relevant records as per user query and store itin result set. DECOMPRESSION TIME:7. Retrieve the metadata from the result for knowing the total The XML documents used in study cover a varietynumber columns in the table. of sizes, document characteristics and application domains, and8. For each column create an element tag and enclose data are listed below:within tag. Xmark : This document was generated from Xmark, the9. Parse this complete data using DOM. xml-benchmark project, using their xmlgen data generator.10. Send the DOM data to XML file. It models an auction database and is deeply-nested with aEnd large number of elements and attributes. Many of the element Figure 11: Algorithm for partial decompression. values are long textual passages. 63 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  7. 7. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012Article, intl. proc, masterthesis and phdthesis : natural advance compressor which can help for updating These documents represent conference and journal operation over compressed data .entries, respectively, from the DBLP archive [27].Shakespeare : VII. REFERENCES This document is the publicly available XMLversion of the plays of Shakespeare. Similar to xmark above, 1] A. Arion, A. Bonifati, G. Costa, S. DAguanno, I.man y of the element values are long textual passages. Manolescu, and A.Pugliese. Efficient Query Evaluation overFollowing table 2 shows the comparison of proposed Compressed XML Data. Proceedings of EDBT (2004).methodology with Xmill, Gzip, XCQ and XGrind on the 2] A.Arion, A. Bonifati, G. Costa, S. DAguanno, I.basis decompression time. DT indicates the Manolescu, and A. Pugliese. XQueC: Pushing Queries todecompression time. Compressed XML Data. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB03), (2003). Docum DTX DTG DTX DTXG DTProp 3] Al-Hamadani, B. T., Alwan, R. F., Lu, J. & Yip, J. 2009. ent Mill zip CQ rind osed Vague Content and Structure (VCAS) Retrieval for XML Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR). Proceeding of the xmark 6.63 4.88 13.5 43.5 5.228 2009 International Conference on Internet Computing, USA. P: 241-246. shakesp 0.71 0.65 1.2 3.5 0.994 4] Al Hamadani, Baydaa (2011) Retrieving Information from eare Compressed XML Documents According to Vague Queries. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield. article 1.51 1.45 - - 2.218 5] Augeri, C. J., Bulutoglu, D. A., Mullins, B. E., intl. 1.16 1.07 - - 1.235 Baldwin, R.O. & Leemon C. Baird, I. (2007). An analysis of XML compression efficiency. Proceedings of the 2007 proc. workshop on Experimental computer science, ACM, San masterth - - 0.141 Diego, California. 6] Clarke J (2004) The Expat XML parser. Extensible Markup esis Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) W3C, phdthesi - - 0.344 Recommendation, October (2000) http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/. s 7] G. Antoshenkov. Dictionary-Based Order-Preserving String Compression. VLDB Journal 6, page 26-39, (1997). Table 2: Decompression Times Gerlicher, A. R. S. (2007), Developing Collaborative XML Editing Systems, PhD thesis, University of the Arts London, Table shows that the decompression required by London.different de-compressors. One observation from above 8] Groppe, J.(2008), SPEEDING UP XML QUERYING,table is that, in general, Gzip outperforms the other PhD thesis,Zugl Lübeck University, Berlin.compressors in de-compression and XMill runs faster than 9]H. Liefke and D. Suciu. XMill: An Efficient CompressorXCQ and XGrind. Other observation is that XGrind for XML Data. Proceedings of the ACM SIGMODrequires a much longer de-compression time that the other International Conference on Management of Data, pp.de-compressors. 153-164 (2000). From the above table observation it is observed 10] Harrusi, S., Averbuch, A. & Yehudai, A. 2006. XMLthat decompression time for our proposed implemented Syntax Conscious Compression.Proceedings of the Datamethodology is better than decompression time for XCQ Compression Conference (DCC‟06),and XGrind and is comparable with XMill. http://www.w3.org/TR/xquery. 11] J. Cheng and W. Ng. XQzip: Querying Compressed VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK XML Using Structural Indexing. Proceedings of EDBT (2004). we recognize that the size problem already hinders 12] J. Clark. XML Path Language (XPath), (1999).the adoption of xml, since in practice, it subsequently http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath.increases the cost of data processing, data storage and data 13] J. Gailly and M. Adler. gzip 1.2.4. http://www.gzip.org/.exchange over the web .We have presented here our approach 14] J. K. Min, M. J. Park, and C. W. Chung. XPRESS: Afor compression of XML database . As there is a tradeoff Queriable Compression for XML Data. Proceedings of theamong compression time , compression ratio and ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management ofdecompression time, we tried to address compression time, Data (2003).ratio issue and effective query evaluation which is having 15] J.M.Martinez.MPEG-7Overview(version9). http://www.comparatively better result. With the experimental chiariglione.org/mpeg/standards/mpeg-7/mpeg-7.htm.evaluation we come to the conclusion that our compression 16] Liefke, H. & Suciu, D. 2000. XMill: an Efficienttime and decompression time for compressed XML data is Compressor for XML Data. ACM.better with some of the querible XML compressor and query 17] Mark nelson, Prinipal of data compression, pub 1999.response time is better than XGrind and native . And of Moro, M. M., Ale, P., Vagena, Z. & Tsotras, V. J. 2008.course there is further room for the improvement in XML Structural Summaries. PVLDB 08, Auckland, Newcompression ratio and compression time by designing a Zealand. 64 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  8. 8. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 201218] Ng, W., Lam, W.-Y. & Cheng, J. (2006) ComparativeAnalysis of XML Compression Technologies. World WideWeb: Internet and Web Information Systems, Vol. 9,Pages 5-3319] Norbert, F. & Kai, G. (2004) XIRQL: An XML querylanguage based on information retrieval concepts. ACMTrans. Inf. Syst., 22, 313-356.20] P. M. Tolani and J. R. Haritsa. XGRIND: A Query-friendly XML Compressor. IEEE Proceedings of the 18thInternational Conference on Data Engineering (2002).pkzip. http://www.pkware.com/.21] S. Boag et al. XQuery 1.0: An XML Query Language,Nov. (2002).22] Smith S. Nair XML compression techniques: A survey.Department of Computer Science ,University of Iowa, USA23] T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas. Elements of InformationTheory. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley &S ons, Inc., NewYork, (1991). The bzip2 and libbzip2 official home page.http://sources.redhat.com/bzip2/.24] Violleau, T. (2001) Java Technology and XML,ORACLE.25] W. Y. Lam, W. Ng, P. T. Wood, and M. Levene. XCQ:XML Compression and Querying System. Poster Proceedings, 12th International World-Wide Web Conference (WWW2003), May (2003).26] Winzip. http://www.winzip.com/.27] http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/_ley/dbFirst Author Vijay S. Gulhane, M.E. in computer Science andEngineering , having more 30+ publication in international journal ,Area ofresearch is XML database compression techniques and is a research scholarin SGB Amravati university , Amravati. Second Author Dr. M.S.Ali M.Tech., Ph.D., Principal PRMCOE&M,,Badnera, Recognized research guide with 80+publication in internationaljournal ,Ex chairman IETE Amravati Centre, Ex- Chairman BOS CSE, SGBAmravati University, Amravati with 25+ years experience in Academics. 65 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE