ISSN: 2277 – 9043                International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineerin...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                     International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engin...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                          International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics ...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                          International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics ...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                           International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                              International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electron...
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  1. 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 SURVEY OF ENERGY EFFICIENT MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET Ranjeet Jaiswal1, Manish Chand Sahu2, Ankur Mishra3 Sanjay Sharma4 OIST Bhopal1, 3, 4, LNCT Bhopal2 Research scholor1, 2, 3, Asst. Professor3 Ranjeet.jaiswal87@gmail.com1 , manishsahu7710@gmail.com2 , ankur_2469@yahoo.co.in3 , Sanjaysharma@oriental.ac.in3Abstract-- Although establishing correct and efficient disk, system memory (DRAM), keyboard/mouse, CDROMroutes is an important design issue in mobile ad hoc drive, flash drives, I/O subsystem, and the wireless networknetworks (MANETs), a more challenging goal is to provide interface card .energy efficient routes because mobile nodes’ operation time A typical example from Toshiba 410 CDT mobileis the most critical limiting factor. This article surveys andanalyses the energy aware routing protocols proposed for computer demon straits that nearly 36% of powerMANETs. They minimize either the active communication consumed is by the display, 21% by the CPU/memory,energy required to transmit or receive packets or the inactive 18% by the wireless interface, and 18% by the hard drive.energy consumed when a mobile node stays idle but listens to Consequently, energy conservation has been largelythe wireless medium for any possible communication requests considered in the hardware design of the mobile terminalfrom other nodes. Transmission power control approach and [10] and in components such as CPU, disks, displays, etc.load distribution approach belong to the former category, Significant additional power savings may result byand sleep/power-down mode approach belongs to the latter incorporating low-power strategies into the design ofcategory. While it is not clear that any particular algorithm network protocols used for data communication.or a class of algorithms is the best for all scenarios, eachprotocol has definite advantages/disadvantages and is well- In ad hoc networks, nodes communicate with each other bysuited for certain situations. The purpose of this paper is to way of radio signals, which are broadcast in nature.facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing Broadcast is a unique case of multicast, wherein all nodessolutions to offer a more energy efficient routing mechanism. in the network should get the broadcast message. Multicasting is a communication process in which the transmission of packets (message) is initiated by a single Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks; Multicast user and the message is received by one or more end usersRouting Protocols; Energy Efficiency, Security; Review of the network. Multicasting in wired and wirelessSurvey networks has been advantageous and used as a vital technology in many applications such as audio/ video I. INTRODUCTION conferencing, corporate communications, collaborative andMobile ad hoc networks comprise freely roaming groupware applications, distance learning, stock quotes,wireless nodes that cooperatively make up for the distribution of software, news and etc [1]. Under multicastabsence of fixed infrastructure; that is, the nodes communications, a single stream of data can be shared withthemselves support the network functionality. Nodes multiple recipients and data is only duplicated whentransiently associate with their peers that are within the required.radio connectivity range of their transceiver and However, it would be a difficult and challenging task toimplicitly agree to assist in provision of the basic offer energy efficient and reliable multicast routing innetwork services. These associations are dynamically MANETs. It might not be possible to recharge / replace acreated and torn down. Studies show that the significant mobile node that is powered by batteries during a mission.consumers of power in a typical laptop are the The inadequate battery lifetime imposes a limitation on themicroprocessor (CPU), liquid crystal display (LCD), hard network performance. To take full advantage of the lifetime 14 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  2. 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 of nodes, traffic should be routed in a way that energy These protocols have unique attributes and utilize different consumption is minimized. In recent years, various energy recovery mechanisms on energy consumption. efficient multicast routing protocols have been proposed. Figure: 1 Multicast routing II. MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL DESIGN: ISSUES Unlike wired networks, MANETs are characterized by scant AND CHALLENGES capacity caused by the noise and interference inherent in wireless transmission and multipath fading. Efficient multicastThe particular features of MANETs make the design of a routing protocols are expected to provide a fair number ofmulticast routing protocol a challenging one. These protocols control packets transmitted through the network relative to themust deal with a number of issues, including, but not limited to, number of data packets reaching their destination intact, andhigh dynamic topology, limited and variable capacity, limited methods to improve and increase the available capacity need toenergy resources, a high bit error rate, a multihop topology, and be considered.the hidden terminal problem. The requirements of existing andfuture multicast routing protocols and the issues associated with C. Energy Consumptionthese protocols that should be taken into consideration are listed Energy efficiency is an important consideration in such anin what follows [2, 3, and 6]. environment. Nodes in MANETs rely on limited battery power A. Topology, Mobility, and Robustness for their energy. Energy-saving techniques aimed at minimizing the total power consumption of all nodes in the multicast groupIn MANETs, nodes are free to move anywhere, anytime, and at (minimize the number of nodes used to establish multicastdifferent speeds. The random and continued movement of the connectivity, minimize the number of overhead controls, etc.)nodes leads to a highly dynamic topology, especially in a high- and at maximizing the multicast life span should be considered.mobility environment. A multicast routing protocol should berobust enough to react quickly with the mobility of the nodes D. Quality of Service and Resource Managementand should adapt to topological changes in order to avoid Providing quality of service (QoS) assurance is one of thedropping a data packet during the multicast session, which greatest challenges in designing algorithms for MANETwould create a low packet delivery ratio (PDR: the number of no multicasts. Multicast routing protocols should be able to reserveduplicate data packets successfully delivered to each destination different network resources to achieve QoS requirements suchversus the number of data packets supposed to be received at as, capacity, delay, delay jitter, and packet loss. It is veryeach destination). It is very important to minimize control difficult to meet all QoS requirements at the same time becauseoverhead while creating and maintaining the multicast group of the peculiarities of ad hoc networks. Even if this is done, thetopology, especially in an environment with limited capacity. protocol will be very complex (many routing tables, high control B. Capacity and Efficiency overhead, high energy consumption, etc.). As a result, doing so will not be suitable for these networks with their scarce 15 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  3. 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012resources, and resource management and adaptive QoS methods Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol Utilizing Increasing id-are more convenient than reservation methods for MANETs. numbers (AMRIS) are proactive multicast routing protocols. Periodic broadcast of network topology updates are needed to E. Security and Reliability compute the shortest path from the source to every destination, which consumes a lot of bandwidth. In Table 3 gives theSecurity provisioning is a crucial issue in MANET multicasting Characteristic comparison of proactive Multicast Routingdue to the broadcast nature of this type of network, the existence Protocol.of a wireless medium, and the lack of any centralizedinfrastructure. This makes MANETs vulnerable toeavesdropping, interference, spoofing, and so forth. Multicastrouting protocols should take this into account, especially insome applications such as military (battlefield) operations,national crises, and emergency operations. Reliability isparticularly important in multicasting, especially in theseapplications, and it becomes more difficult to deliver reliabledata to group members whose topology varies. A reliablemulticasting design depends on the answers of the followingthree questions. By who are the errors detected? How are error Figure: 2 Classification of Multicast routing protocolsmessages signalled? How are missing packets retransmitted? A. Ad-hoc Multicast Routing (AMRoute) F. Scalability Ad-hoc Multicast Routing (AMRoute) is a tree basedA multicast routing protocol should be able to provide an multicast routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks.acceptable level of service in a network with a large number of AMRoute creates a multicast shared-tree over mesh. AMRoutenodes. It is very important to take into account the relies on the existence of an underlying unicast routing protocol.nondeterministic characteristics (power and capacity limitations, AMRoute has two key phases: mesh creation and tree creation.random mobility, etc.) of the MANET environment in coping This protocol can be used for networks in which only a set ofwith this issue. nodes supports AMRoute routing function. It is only one logical (III) CLASSIFICATION OF MULTICAST ROUTING core in the multicast tree, which is responsible for group PROTOCOLS IN MANET member maintenance and multicast tree creation. In this routing protocol builds a user- multicast tree, in which only the groupThis section describes some of the existing multicast routing members are included; because non-members are not includedprotocols used in MANETs. We classify them into three in the tree, the links in the tree are virtual links. In other words,categories, according to their layers of operation. The categories they are in fact multi-hop IP-in-IP tunnels and AMRouteare the Proactive Multicast Routing Protocol, Reactive Multicast depends on the underlying unicast routing protocol to deal withRouting Protocol and Hybrid Multicast Routing Protocols. network dynamics, although it has no privilege for unicast routing protocols. AMRoute creates an efficient and robustIn this paper, we will classify the proposals that tried to pose shared tree for each group. It helps keep the multicast deliverygeneral ideas of how applying multicast concept in MANETs. tree unchanged with changes of network topology, as long asThe classification of these proposals will be mentioned under paths between tree members and core nodes exist via meshdifferent viewpoints as shown in Figure 2 links. When mobility is present, AMRoute suffers from loop formation, creates no optimal trees, and requires higher1. Proactive Multicast Routing Protocols overhead to assign a new core. Also, AMRoute suffers from aConventional routing protocols such as Ad-hoc Multicast single point of failure of the core node.Routing (AMRoute), Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP) and 16 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  4. 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012B. Ad hoc Multicast Routing Protocol utilizing increasing id- protocol. CAMP modifies this table when a multicast groupnumbers (AMRIS) joins or leaves the network. A Multicast Routing Table (MRT) is based on the Routing Table that contains the set of knownAMRIS [7] is a proactive shared tree based multicast routing groups. Moreover, all member nodes maintain a set of cachesprotocol, which is independent of the fundamental unicast that Sender Forwarder Receiver contain previously seen datarouting protocol. In AMRIS, the tree maintenance procedure packet information and unacknowledged membership requests.operates continuously and locally to ensure a node’s connection The creation and maintenance of meshes are main parts ofto the multicast session delivery tree. In AMRIS, the tree CAMP.maintenance procedure operates continuously and locally toensure a node’s connection to the multicast session delivery tree. AMROUTE AMRIS CAMPAMRIS is an on-demand protocol that constructs a shared Structure of multicastdelivery tree to support multiple senders and receivers within a routing Tree Tree Meshmulticast session. AMRIS dynamically assigns every node (ondemand) in a multicast session with an ID number known as Loop Free NO Yes yesmsm-id. The msm-id provides a heuristic height to a node and Dependencey onthe ranking order of msm-id numbers directs the flow of unicasting Routing Protocols Yes No Yesdatagram in the multicast delivery tree. Every node calculates itsmsm-id during the initialization phase, which is initiated by aspecial node called S-id. Normally, the S-id is the source node if Scalability Fair Fair Goodthere is only one source for the session. Otherwise, the S-id is Comtol Packet flooding Flat Flat Flatthe source node that has the minimum msm-id. The S-id Perodic Messagebroadcasts a NEW_SESSION message to its neighbours. When Requirement Yes Yes Yesa node wants to join the multicast session, it chooses one of itsneighbours which has the smaller msm-id as its parent and sendit a JOIN-REQ message. If the neighbour is in the tree (if the 2. Reactive Multicast Routing Protocolstree has been built), it answers with a JOIN-ACK message, Traditional routing protocols such as On Demand Multicastwhich means the joining is successful; otherwise (when it is the Routing Protocol (ODMRP) and Multicast Ad-hoc on-demandfirst time to build the tree), the neighbour forwards JOIN-REQ Distance Vector (MAODV) are Reactive multicast routingto its own neighbours and waits for the reply, which is repeated protocols. Reactive routing that means discovers the route whenuntil the JOIN-REQ arrives at an on-tree node or the source. As needed. Reactive routing protocols are well suited for a large-a result, a delivery tree rooted from the source is formed to scale, narrow-band MANET with moderate or low mobility. Ininclude all the group members and some relay non-members. Table 4 gives the Characteristic comparison of ReactiveAMRIS repairs the broken links by performing local route repair Multicast Routing Protocol.without the need for any central controlling node, therebyreducing the control overhead. A. On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) [8] is aC. Core-Assisted Mesh protocol (CAMP) reactive mesh based multicast routing protocol. ODMRP isCore-Assisted Mesh protocol (CAMP) [10] is a proactive not only a multicast routing protocol, but also provides unicastmulticast routing protocol based on shared Meshes-The mesh routing capability. The source establishes and maintains groupstructure provides at least one path from each source to each membership and multicast mesh on demand if it needs to sendreceiver in the multicast group. CAMP relies on an underlying data packets to the multicast group, which is somewhat similarunicast protocol which can provide correct distances to all to MAODV. A set of nodes, which is called forwarding group,destinations within finite time. Every node maintains a Routing participate in forwarding data packets among group members.Table (RT) that is created by the underlying unicast routing All the states in ODMRP are soft states, which are refreshed by the control messages mentioned above or data packets, which 17 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  5. 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012achieves higher robustness. ODMRP uses a forwarding group to maintain the sequence number. The group leader is by defaultconcept for multicast packet transmission, in which each the first node joining the group, but could also be another nodemulticast group G is associated with a forwarding group (FG). when the first node leaves the group. The main drawbacks ofNodes in FG are in charge of forwarding multicast packets of MAODV are long delays and high overheads associated withgroup G. In a multicast group of ODMRP, the source manages fixing broken links in conditions of high mobility and trafficthe group membership, establishes and updates the multicast load. Also, it has a low packet delivery ratio in scenarios withroutes on demand. Like reactive unicast routing protocols, high mobility, large numbers of members, or a high traffic load.ODMPR comprises two main phases: the request phase and the Because of its dependence on AODV, MAODV is not flexible.reply phase. When a multicast source has a packet to send but it Finally, it suffers from a single point of failure, which is thehas no routing and group membership information, it floods a multicast group leader.Join Request packet to the entire network. Join Request packets ODMRP MAODVare member-advertising packets with piggybacked data payload.When a node receives a non-duplicate JOIN Request, it stores Multicast delivery Mesh Core based treethe upstream node ID in its routing table and rebroadcasts the structurepacket. When the JOIN Request packet reaches a multicast Loop free Yes Yesreceiver, the receiver refreshes or creates an entry for the source Periodic message Yes Noin Member Table and broadcasts JOIN TABLE packets requirementperiodically to its neighbours. When a node receives a JOINTABLE packet, it checks each entry of the table to find out if Routing hierarchy Flat Flatthere is an entry in the table whose next node ID field matchesits ID. If there is a match, the node recognizes that it is on the scalability Fare Farepath to the source, thus it is part of the forwarding group. Then itsets the FG_FLAG and broadcasts its own JOIN TABLE built 3. Hybrid Multicast Routing Protocolsupon matched entries. Consequently, each member of a Traditional routing protocol such as Optimized Polymorphicforwarding group propagates the JOIN TABLE packets until the Hybrid Multicast Routing Protocol (OPHMR) is the Hybridmulticast source is reached via the shortest path. This process multicast routing protocol. Hybrid routing protocol attempts toconstructs (or updates) the routes from sources to receivers and discover balance between the two such as proactive forbuilds a mesh of nodes, the forwarding group. neighbourhood, reactive for far away.B. Multicast Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector 1. Optimized Polymorphic Hybrid Multicast Routing(MAODV) Multicast operation of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Protocol (OPHMR)Vector (MAODV) [10] is a reactive tree-based multicast routing This protocol [9] is invested with different operational modesprotocol. MAODV is an extension of the unicast routing that are either proactive or reactive based on a MN’s powerprotocol Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV). Using remainder, mobility level, and vicinity density level. It attemptsMAODV, all nodes in the network maintain local connectivity to address the issues of power efficiency, latency, and protocolby broadcasting “Hello” messages with TTL set to one. Every overhead in an adaptive manner. OPHMR’s reactive behaviournode maintains three tables, a Routing is based on the On-Demand Multicast Routing ProtocolTable (RT), a Multicast Routing Table (MRT) and a Request (ODMRP). It’s relatively simplistic. It generates on-demandTable. RT stores routing information and has the same route paths for multicast message requests. OPHMR’s proactivefunction as in AODV. In unicast routing operations, every behaviour is based on the Multicast Zone Routing (MZR)destination has a unique sequence number. Likewise every protocol. It builds a zone around each Mobile Node (in hops)multicast group also has a sequence number to indicate the and periodically sends updates within each defined zone. Forfreshness of the multicast routing information. added efficiency, OPHMR utilizes an optimizing schemeThus, one and only one group leader is elected to broadcast adapted from the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR)periodical GROUP HELLO messages throughout the MANET 18 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  6. 6. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012protocol. It used to decrease the amount of control overhead that Systems, 2004. [6]. M.C.C. De, H. Gossain, D.P. Agrawal, Multicast over Wirelessis produced. OPHMR is, after a very lengthy period of time, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: Present and Future Directions, IEEEable to extend battery life and enhance the survivability of the Network, 52–59, 2003.mobile ad hoc nodes. As a result, it decreases the end-to-end [7]. J. G. Jetcheva and D. B. Johnson: Adaptive Demand-Drivendelay and increases the packet delivery ratio. Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Mobile andAd-hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHOC), pages 33 - 44, IV. CONCLUSION Long Beach, CA, October 2001. [8]. M. Maleki and M. Pedram, Lifetime-Aware Multicast Routing inA mobile ad hoc network (MANET) consists of autonomous Wireless Ad hoc Networks, Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004.mobile nodes, each of which communicates directly with the [9]. Adel Ben Mnaouer, Lei Chen, Chuan Heng Foh, Juki Wirawannodes within its wireless range or indirectly with other nodes in Tantra, "OPHMR: An Optimized Polymorphic Hybrid Multicasta network. In order to facilitate secure and reliable Routing Protocol for MANET," IEEE Transactions on Mobilecommunication within a MANET, an efficient routing protocol Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 551-562, May 2007, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.1030is required to discover routes between mobile nodes. The field [10]. CHRISTINE E. JONES, KRISHNA M. SIVALINGAM,of MNAET is rapidly growing due to the many advantages and PRATHIMA AGRAWAL and JYH CHENG CHEN, “A Survey ofdifferent application areas. Energy efficiency and security are Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Networks”,some challenges faced in MANETs, especially in designing a Wireless Networks 7, 343–358, 2001Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.routing protocol. In this paper, we surveyed a number of energy [11]. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J. Madruga, E.L. Dept. of Comput. Eng.,efficient multicast routing International California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA, “The core-assisted mesh 11] C. C. protocols and secure multicast routing protocols. In many cases, Chiang, M. Gerla, and L. Zhang, “Adaptive shared tree multicast init is difficult to compare these protocols with each other directly mobile wireless networks,” Proceeding of GLOBECOM, pp. 1817– 1822, November1998. Protocol” 06 August 2002.since each protocol has a different goal with differentassumptions and employs mechanisms to achieve the goal.According to the study, these protocols have different strengthsand drawbacks. A multicast protocol can hardly satisfy allrequirements. In other words, one routing protocol cannot be asolution for all energy efficient and security issues that are facedin MANETs, but rather each protocol is designed to provide themaximum possible requirements, according to certain requiredscenarios. V. REFERENCES [1]. X. Chen, J. Wu, Multicasting Techniques in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Computer Science Department, South-west Texas State University, San Marcos, The Handbook of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks (2003) pp. 25–40. [2]. M. Mohammed, Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 4, 2009. [3]. M. Cheng, J. Shun, M. Min, Y. Li and W. Wu, Energy-Efficient Broadcast and Multicast Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 213–223, 2006. [4]. L Junhai, X Liu, Y Danxia, Research on Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Computer Networks – Elsevier, 2008. [5]. R. Vaishampayan, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Energy Efficient and Robust Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor 19 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

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