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The mobile ecosystem

Ivano Malavolta
Gran Sasso Science Institute
Roadmap
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mo...
The Mobile Ecosystem

4G
HSPDA
 GPRS
Edge

WIFI
The Mobile Ecosystem
Services
Applications
Application frameworks
Operating systems
Platforms
Devices
Networks
Operators
The Mobile Ecosystem
Operators make the entire mobile ecosystem work

ROLE: to create and maintain wireless services over ...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Mobile networks communicate through electromagnetic
radio waves with a cell site base station, the an...
The Mobile Ecosystem
The PHONE
handsets or terminals in industry

but also other devices such as tablets, ebook readers… 
...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Feature Phone
VS
Smartphone 
(and touch phones)

Devices
Networks
Operators
image source: http://tech...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Platforms provide access to the devices, they provide a core
programming language in which ALL the so...
The Mobile Ecosystem
OS have core services or toolkits that enable apps to talk to
each other and share data or services

...
The Mobile Ecosystem
They run on top of the OS, sharing core services such as:

•  Communications
•  Messaging
•  Graphics...
The Mobile Ecosystem

Application Frameworks
Operating Systems
Platforms
Devices
Networks
Operators
data source: http://ww...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Definition: in the realm of technology, this usually refers to a
computer program that runs on a websi...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Apps live between the device and the user




APP




They must fit with their usage context

 
They m...
The Fragmentation problem
It is the inability to develop an app against a reference
operating context (OC) and achieve the...
The Fragmentation problem



is
here
W
pache 
A
ova?
Cord





for further info: http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~damithch/files...
The Mobile Ecosystem
Services are “everything the user is trying to do”
They are often available at different levels

•  A...
The Mobile Ecosystem
All of these layers must be passed through before you get to
the content



Services
Applications
App...
Mobile market
How big is the Mobile Market?

data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-...
Mobile market

in 2009
data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
Mobile market

in 2009
data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
Mobile market

in 2009
data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
Roadmap
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mo...
Mobile is the 7th mass media
1.  Printing press
2.  Recordings
3.  Cinema
4.  Radio
5.  Television
6.  Internet
Mobile is the 7th mass media

Mobile is the LARGEST
 , 

most available 

mass medium 



TO MANKIND
Mobile is the 7th mass media
it started at the
same time as the
Web
	


	


7.  Mobile

UNIQUE TRAIT
it can do EVERYTHING ...
Unique benefits of Mobile
Apart from covering all the other media, mobile has five
unique benefits 	

First truly personal ma...
Context
CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT
CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT
CO...
Two kinds of context

Context
with a big “C”

VS


context
with a little “c”
Context VS context by example


The app works in a specific context depending on the
current location of the user
The app g...
Context VS context by example
Context

who is here?



VS
context

where I am 

Context answers users’
questions


 

VS

...
Context with a big “C”
How users will derive value from something they are
currently doing

For example:

•  info on resta...
Context with a big “C”
The information provided by the app gives Context


A better understanding of what this moment in t...
context with a little “c”
The mode, medium and environment in which we
perform our tasks

There are 3 different types of c...
context with a little “c”
Physical context
where I am

http://bit.ly/wXGpNA
http://bit.ly/yoBk7d
context with a little “c”
Physical context
in which environment I am


•  at home
•  on a bus
•  in the streets
•  in my o...
context with a little “c”
Media context
the device I am using


•  Connectivity
•  Screen size
•  Camera
•  etc …
http://w...
context with a little “c”
Modal context
my present state of mind

what I am doing right now
How I feel right now


http://...
…again on “big C” VS “little c”
I only care
about…

I only care
about…

Context

user

context

Developer
(you)
The Mobile golden rule

 If you can unlock the state of mind of
your users and start thinking in their
context, understand...
How can you apply the golden rule?
Think of your app in its context
•  Who is your user? Business man, teenager, mum…
•  W...
Examples

http://www.soundhound.com
Examples 2

http://www.endomondo.com
Examples 3

http://www.instagr.am
Examples 4

http://www.rockstargames.com/grandtheftauto3
Roadmap
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mo...
Developing a mobile strategy
Mobile strategy = 

How much it will cost you to
develop your app?

How much time?

How much
...
Bursting the first myth
Mobile design and development IS NOT CHEAP

http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-web
Bursting the first myth
Mobile design and development IS NOT CHEAP

http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-web
The new rules for a mobile strategy
Remember, mobile is a new medium 

à

DIFFERENT RULES


Don’t try to follow “traditio...
Rule #1



Forget what you think you know
Mobile is an ever-evolving area 

à today you are already outdated


•  Forget ...
Rule #2
Believe what you see, not what you read

•  Don’t trust any report, fact, or figure that 1-2 years old

- It is mos...
Rule #3


Constraints never come first

•  Avoid talking about constraints at an early-stage brainstorming
session


- Refe...
Rule #4


Focus on context, goals and needs


•  Defining the users’ context is the first thing to do

- without it, you don...
Rule #5
You can’t support everything



•  Don’t try to support everything 

 - Start with the devices that best represent...
Rule #6


Don’t convert, create

Great mobile products are created, never ported

•  Understand your user and his context
...
Rule #7


Keep it simple
People want to use mobile devices in a simple way

•  Simplicity à fewer technical problems 
•  ...
Roadmap
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mo...
Types of mobile apps
Applications can be presented in different ways

es. taks-based utility, immersive experience, etc…

...
Types of mobile apps
Mobile apps can provide different experiences to the user

Utility
Locale
Informative
Productivity
Im...
Utility
•  short, task-based scenarios
•  minimal information from the user
•  minimal design

ex. 

 calculator 

 alarm ...
Locale
•  it provides info about “what’s around”
•  recurrent feature: a map on which data is displayed
•  goal of the use...
Informative
•  Goal: to provide information to the user
•  Task of the user: to read and understand
•  not necessarily to ...
Productivity
•  Meant to increase user’s sense of efficiency
•  Users have a clear goal in mind
•  Very structured (with fo...
Immersive
•  immersive, full-screen app
•  meant to consume the user’s focus

ex.

games

media players

entertainment
TIP...
Summary
Roadmap
The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mo...
Tips for the project
There is no “perfect app”, you have to find the sweet spot

costs, revenue,
market share, and
time to ...
Tips for the project
1. 

Find a REAL NEED first

2. 

Find your GOAL to fill the need

3. 

Reverse Engineer the goal into ...
Tips for the project
This is my checkbox when I review an app:
ü  Does it have a clear goal?
ü  Is it filling a real need...
References

Chapters 
1-2-3-4-5-6

http://goo.gl/MY4keU
Contact

Ivano Malavolta | 
Gran Sasso Science Institute
+ 39 380 70 21 600

iivanoo

ivano.malavolta@univaq.it

www.ivano...
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The mobile ecosystem and development strategies

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The mobile ecosystem
Mobile as the 7th mass medium
Designing for context
Mobile development strategies
Types of mobile applications
Tips for the project

This presentation has been developed in the context of the Mobile Applications Development course, DISIM, University of L'Aquila (Italy), Spring 2013.

http://www.ivanomalavolta.com

Published in: Technology

The mobile ecosystem and development strategies

  1. 1. The mobile ecosystem Ivano Malavolta Gran Sasso Science Institute
  2. 2. Roadmap The mobile ecosystem Mobile as the 7th mass medium Designing for context Mobile development strategies Types of mobile applications Tips for the project
  3. 3. The Mobile Ecosystem 4G HSPDA GPRS Edge WIFI
  4. 4. The Mobile Ecosystem Services Applications Application frameworks Operating systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  5. 5. The Mobile Ecosystem Operators make the entire mobile ecosystem work ROLE: to create and maintain wireless services over a reliable cellular network They install cellular towers •  Voice •  Messages •  Internet access Operators
  6. 6. The Mobile Ecosystem Mobile networks communicate through electromagnetic radio waves with a cell site base station, the antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building image from: http:// en.kioskea.net/contents/ telephonie-mobile/gsm.php3 Networks Operators
  7. 7. The Mobile Ecosystem The PHONE handsets or terminals in industry but also other devices such as tablets, ebook readers… Devices Networks Operators
  8. 8. The Mobile Ecosystem Feature Phone VS Smartphone (and touch phones) Devices Networks Operators image source: http://techcrunch.com/2011/11/28/its-still-afeature-phone-world-global-smartphone-penetration-at-27/
  9. 9. The Mobile Ecosystem Platforms provide access to the devices, they provide a core programming language in which ALL the software is written Open Source: free to use and modify •  Android, Firefox OS Proprietary: by device makers •  iPhone, BlackBerry, Palm Licensed: sold to device makers •  JavaME, BREW, Windows Mobile Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  10. 10. The Mobile Ecosystem OS have core services or toolkits that enable apps to talk to each other and share data or services For example: OSs are common in smartphones, but rare in feature phones Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  11. 11. The Mobile Ecosystem They run on top of the OS, sharing core services such as: •  Communications •  Messaging •  Graphics •  Location •  Security •  Authentication •  … Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  12. 12. The Mobile Ecosystem Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-designdevelop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
  13. 13. The Mobile Ecosystem Definition: in the realm of technology, this usually refers to a computer program that runs on a website (Google Apps), a small computing device (iPad App) or a cell phone (Android App). Example applications include •  Games •  Web Browser •  Camera Applications Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  14. 14. The Mobile Ecosystem Apps live between the device and the user APP They must fit with their usage context They must know the specific device attributes and capabilities à FRAGMENTATION PROBLEM Applications Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  15. 15. The Fragmentation problem It is the inability to develop an app against a reference operating context (OC) and achieve the intended behavior in all OCs suitable for the application.  OC = the external environment influencing its operation Applications Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  16. 16. The Fragmentation problem is here W pache A ova? Cord for further info: http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~damithch/files/SEKE2008.pdf
  17. 17. The Mobile Ecosystem Services are “everything the user is trying to do” They are often available at different levels •  Application •  Application Framework •  OS Example services may include •  the Internet •  sending a text message •  being able to get a location   Services Applications Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators
  18. 18. The Mobile Ecosystem All of these layers must be passed through before you get to the content Services Applications Application Frameworks Operating Systems Platforms Devices Networks Operators Nowadays, the mobile ecosystem is: complicated, fragmented, and a political nightmare RUN AWAY!!! however…
  19. 19. Mobile market How big is the Mobile Market? data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
  20. 20. Mobile market in 2009 data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
  21. 21. Mobile market in 2009 data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
  22. 22. Mobile market in 2009 data source: http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyond
  23. 23. Roadmap The mobile ecosystem Mobile as the 7th mass medium Designing for context Mobile development strategies Types of mobile applications Tips for the project
  24. 24. Mobile is the 7th mass media 1.  Printing press 2.  Recordings 3.  Cinema 4.  Radio 5.  Television 6.  Internet
  25. 25. Mobile is the 7th mass media Mobile is the LARGEST , most available mass medium TO MANKIND
  26. 26. Mobile is the 7th mass media it started at the same time as the Web 7.  Mobile UNIQUE TRAIT it can do EVERYTHING all the other media can do • Reading (and publishing) • Play recordings • Watch movies • Listen to radio • Watch TV (and streaming) • Surf the Internet
  27. 27. Unique benefits of Mobile Apart from covering all the other media, mobile has five unique benefits First truly personal mass media We don’t share our phones with our friends First always-on mass media Information is always available 24/7, even when idle First always-carried mass media 7 out of 10 people sleep with their phones within reach Built-in payment channel Universal click-to-buy + credit cards At the point of creative impulse Ability to create or consume content whenever the mood strikes
  28. 28. Context CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT Mobile apps have the amazing capability to add CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTinformation, adding immediate CONTEXT CONTEXT to CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT relevance to what we are doing right here, CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTright now CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT
  29. 29. Two kinds of context Context with a big “C” VS context with a little “c”
  30. 30. Context VS context by example The app works in a specific context depending on the current location of the user The app gives Context by providing additional info http://bit.ly/wXGpNA
  31. 31. Context VS context by example Context who is here? VS context where I am Context answers users’ questions VS context is a fact https://foursquare.com
  32. 32. Context with a big “C” How users will derive value from something they are currently doing For example: •  info on restaurants •  rate places •  GPS navigator http://www.oink.com
  33. 33. Context with a big “C” The information provided by the app gives Context A better understanding of what this moment in time means to the user Recurrent targets: people, places, things, situations, ideas
  34. 34. context with a little “c” The mode, medium and environment in which we perform our tasks There are 3 different types of context: 1.  Physical context 2.  Media context 3.  Modal context
  35. 35. context with a little “c” Physical context where I am http://bit.ly/wXGpNA http://bit.ly/yoBk7d
  36. 36. context with a little “c” Physical context in which environment I am •  at home •  on a bus •  in the streets •  in my office •  in a shop http://www.textndrive.com http://www.whatsapp.com car VS train
  37. 37. context with a little “c” Media context the device I am using •  Connectivity •  Screen size •  Camera •  etc … http://www.facebook.com
  38. 38. context with a little “c” Modal context my present state of mind what I am doing right now How I feel right now http://www.runens.com http://photostatsapp.com/ http://babypad.mezmedia.com
  39. 39. …again on “big C” VS “little c” I only care about… I only care about… Context user context Developer (you)
  40. 40. The Mobile golden rule If you can unlock the state of mind of your users and start thinking in their context, understanding how a mobile experience will add value to their lives, you will have the ever-elusive… KILLER APP
  41. 41. How can you apply the golden rule? Think of your app in its context •  Who is your user? Business man, teenager, mum… •  What is happening? Are they hanging out with friends? •  When will he interact? @home? @work? waiting for the bus? •  Where is he? Public/private space, inside/outside, day/ night •  Why will he use your app? How do you give Context? •  How is he using his mobile device? Is the device held in the hand? Portrait or landscape?
  42. 42. Examples http://www.soundhound.com
  43. 43. Examples 2 http://www.endomondo.com
  44. 44. Examples 3 http://www.instagr.am
  45. 45. Examples 4 http://www.rockstargames.com/grandtheftauto3
  46. 46. Roadmap The mobile ecosystem Mobile as the 7th mass medium Designing for context Mobile development strategies Types of mobile applications Tips for the project
  47. 47. Developing a mobile strategy Mobile strategy = How much it will cost you to develop your app? How much time? How much effort? How much money?
  48. 48. Bursting the first myth Mobile design and development IS NOT CHEAP http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-web
  49. 49. Bursting the first myth Mobile design and development IS NOT CHEAP http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-web
  50. 50. The new rules for a mobile strategy Remember, mobile is a new medium à DIFFERENT RULES Don’t try to follow “traditional rules” since mobile has its own peculiarities: •  context •  location, user mood •  device fragmentation •  unique UI patterns
  51. 51. Rule #1 Forget what you think you know Mobile is an ever-evolving area à today you are already outdated •  Forget what you think you know about mobile - It is most likely incorrect •  Don’t try to emulate other projects - Focus on what is right for your user, not what is right for someone else’s user
  52. 52. Rule #2 Believe what you see, not what you read •  Don’t trust any report, fact, or figure that 1-2 years old - It is most likely wrong •  Go to your users and ask them questions in person - Don’t try to simply validate your ideas •  Record everything - Your own users’ worlds will help you in focussing on their need •  Don’t forget to innovate - Try new things, be bold, and don’t be afraid to fail
  53. 53. Rule #3 Constraints never come first •  Avoid talking about constraints at an early-stage brainstorming session - Refer back to Rule #1 and forget what you think you know •  There will always be constraints in mobile, accept it! •  Focus on strategy first, what the user needs, and lay down the features - Then, if the constraints become an issue, fall back to the user goals •  There is always an alternative
  54. 54. Rule #4 Focus on context, goals and needs •  Defining the users’ context is the first thing to do - without it, you don’t have a mobile strategy, you have only a plan of action •  Uncover the users’ goals - and then try and understand how the users’ context alters their goals •  With goals understood, figure out the tasks the users want to perform •  Look for ways to filter content by context - for example: location, media, and model
  55. 55. Rule #5 You can’t support everything •  Don’t try to support everything - Start with the devices that best represent your core customer •  The most popular might not always be the best device for your project •  Check your server logs for the devices accessing your site - These are the first devices to target
  56. 56. Rule #6 Don’t convert, create Great mobile products are created, never ported •  Understand your user and his context - Having an idea of how and when users will access your content will aid in understanding how to best create a tailored mobile experience •  Mobile is a unique medium
  57. 57. Rule #7 Keep it simple People want to use mobile devices in a simple way •  Simplicity à fewer technical problems •  Easier to iterate and evolve your app •  Don’t try to create a desktop software on a mobile - Adding feature after feature is an easy trap to fall in •  Build the experience around your users’ main need and nothing else
  58. 58. Roadmap The mobile ecosystem Mobile as the 7th mass medium Designing for context Mobile development strategies Types of mobile applications Tips for the project
  59. 59. Types of mobile apps Applications can be presented in different ways es. taks-based utility, immersive experience, etc… •  Typically, it is best to choose one app context and present it to the user à don’t mix app contexts! TIP: if you really need to switch context within your app, let the user choose when to switch
  60. 60. Types of mobile apps Mobile apps can provide different experiences to the user Utility Locale Informative Productivity Immersive
  61. 61. Utility •  short, task-based scenarios •  minimal information from the user •  minimal design ex. calculator alarm clock weather forecast
  62. 62. Locale •  it provides info about “what’s around” •  recurrent feature: a map on which data is displayed •  goal of the user: to find additional info about his present location ex. find friends around find pubs around get route directions https://foursquare.com
  63. 63. Informative •  Goal: to provide information to the user •  Task of the user: to read and understand •  not necessarily to interact •  remember that user tasks are short and can be interrupted ex. news online directory mobile commerce https://www.pinterest.com
  64. 64. Productivity •  Meant to increase user’s sense of efficiency •  Users have a clear goal in mind •  Very structured (with folders) –  it gives a sense of order •  Clear workflow ex. mail, scanning, todo lists… TIP: focus on the main task only, and only after start adding other features http://www.thegrizzlylabs.com/genius-scan
  65. 65. Immersive •  immersive, full-screen app •  meant to consume the user’s focus ex. games media players entertainment TIP: you can use it as alternative to other app contexts http://www.rockstargames.com/grandtheftauto3
  66. 66. Summary
  67. 67. Roadmap The mobile ecosystem Mobile as the 7th mass medium Designing for context Mobile development strategies Types of mobile applications Tips for the project
  68. 68. Tips for the project There is no “perfect app”, you have to find the sweet spot costs, revenue, market share, and time to market development or configuration, maintainability, and reliability your APP User Goals usability
  69. 69. Tips for the project 1.  Find a REAL NEED first 2.  Find your GOAL to fill the need 3.  Reverse Engineer the goal into a potential app 4.  Remember the unique benefits of Mobile 5.  CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT •  Location, camera, always-carried, accelerometer •  WHO is your typical user???? Define usage scenarios
  70. 70. Tips for the project This is my checkbox when I review an app: ü  Does it have a clear goal? ü  Is it filling a real need? ü  Does it consider the context in which I’m using it? ü  Is it integrated with other services? Look at http://www.programmableweb.com     and discover a new world out there!! J ü  Is it a pleasure to use it? I look at UI design, interface slickness, ecc.
  71. 71. References Chapters 1-2-3-4-5-6 http://goo.gl/MY4keU
  72. 72. Contact Ivano Malavolta | Gran Sasso Science Institute + 39 380 70 21 600 iivanoo ivano.malavolta@univaq.it www.ivanomalavolta.com

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