James Augustine AloysiusJoyce was born on 2nd February1882 in Dublin in an Irish middle-class family.He was educated in Jesuitsschools and he graduated atU.C.D. in 1903.In his early twenties hestarted to travel all aroundEurope, living in Trieste, Parisand Zurich.
In 1904 he met and fell in love with Nora Barnacle, who he got married with in 1931. She bore him two chidren, Giorgio and Lucia. They moved to Trieste and there Joyce startedteaching English and he met one of his best friend: Italo Svevo. Joyce died on 13th January 1941 in Zurich.
Joyce’s works are strictly connected to his life: in 1907 he started his carreer publishing "Chamber Music" but he established himself as a writer with "Dubliners"(1914), a collection of 15 short stories and with "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"(1916), his first semi-autobiographical novel: these books helped him to solve some of his economical problems. In 1914 he also wrote most of his naturalistic drama "Exiles" .Then in 1917 he received the first of several anonymous donations, which encouraged him to continue writing his masterpiece "Ulysses", published in Paris in 1922. Then James Joyce started working on hissecond major work “Finnegan’s Wake” in 1923 published in April 1924.
•Dubliners is a collection offifteen short stories, settledin Dublin in the early years ofthe 20th century.•Joyce wrote it to make anaturalistic depiction of theIrish lower-middle-class ofthe age, in order to show 1914Dubliners as afflicted peoplefrom a psychological point ofview.
•His central idea was to know theinnermost thoughts of characters, asan omniscent narrator, but from aninner view.
The storiesThe Sisters – After the priest Father Flynndies, a young boy who was close to him andhis family deal with it only superficially.An Encounter – Two schoolboys playing truantencounter an elderly man.Araby – A boy falls in love with the sister ofhis friend, but fails in his quest to buy her aworthy gift from the Araby bazaar.Eveline – A young woman abandons her plansto leave Ireland with a sailor.After the Race – a College student JimmyDoyle tries to fit in with his wealthy friends.Two Gallants – Two men, Lenehan and Corley,find a maid who is willing to steal from heremployer.The Boarding House – Mrs. Mooneysuccessfully manoeuvres her daughter Pollyinto an upwardly mobile marriage with herlodger Mr. Doran.
A Little Cloud – Little Chandlerss dinner with his old friendIgnatius Gallaher casts fresh light on his own failed literarydreams. The story reflects also on Chandlers mood uponrealizing his baby son has replaced him as the centre ofhis wifes affections.Counterparts – Farrington, a lumbering alcoholic scrivener,takes out his frustration in pubs and on his son Tom.Clay – The old maid Maria, a laundress, celebratesHalloween with her former foster child Joe Donnelly andhis family.A Painful Case – Mr. Duffy rebuffs Mrs. Sinico, then fouryears later realizes he has condemned her to lonelinessand death.Ivy Day in the Committee Room – Minor politicians fail tolive up to the memory of Charles Stewart Parnell.A Mother – Mrs. Kearney tries to win a place of pride forher daughter, Kathleen, in the Irish cultural movement, bystarring her in a series of concerts, but ultimately fails.Grace – After Mr. Kernan injures himself falling down thestairs in a bar, his friends tries to reform him throughCatholicism.The Dead – Gabriel Conroy attends a party, and later, as hespeaks with his wife, has an epiphany about the nature oflife and death. At 15–16,000 words this story has also beenclassified as a novella.
CHILDHOOD: The Sisters, An Encounter, ArabyADOLESCENCE: After the Race, The Boarding House, Eveline, Two GalliantsMATURE LIFE: A Little Cloud, Clay, Counterparts, A Painful Case PUBLIC LIFE: Ivy Day in Committee Room, A Mother, GraceTHE DEATH: The Dead, which is the climax andthe summary of "Dubliners".
SETTING:ALTHOUGH MOST OF HIS ADULT LIFE WAS SPENTABROAD, JOYCES FICTIONAL UNIVERSE DOES NOTEXTEND BEYOND DUBLIN. HE DOES NOT REPRESENT IT IN A FIXED ANDSTATIC WAY FOR ITS MONUMENTAL ASPECT, BUTAS A DYNAMIC CITY THROUGH THE MOVEMENT OFITS PEOPLE.THE CITY EMERGES DURING THE MOMENTS OFTRANSITION AS HIS DUBLINERS MOVES AROUND. “FOR MYSELF, I ALWAYS WRITE ABOUT DUBLIN,BECAUSE IF I CAN GET TO THE HEART OF DUBLIN I CANGET TO THE HEART OF ALL THE CITIES OF THE WORLD.
The Prison of Routine: Restrictive routines and therepetitive, mundane details of everyday life mark the livesof Joyce’s Dubliners and trap them in circles of frustration,restraint, and violence.The Desire of Escape: The characters in Dubliners may becitizens of the Irish capital, but many of them long for anescape and adventure in other countries.The Intersection of life and death: The monotony of Dublinlife leads Dubliners to live in a suspended state betweenlife and death.
MOTIFS:•Paralysis: In most of the stories of Dubliners, a character has adesire, faces obstacles to it, then ultimately relents andsuddenly stops all action. These moments of paralysis show thecharacters’ inability to change their lives and reverse theroutines that hamper their wishes.•Epiphany: Epiphanies are sudden spiritual manifestations",caused by a trivial gesture, an external object or a banalsituation, that allow characters to better understand theirparticular circumstances and lives, which they then return towith resignation and frustration.•Betrayal: Nearly every relationship in Dubliners stories isaffected by this feeling, which evokes the sense of displacementand humiliation that all of these Dubliners fear.•Religion: The presence of so many religious references alsosuggests that religion traps Dubliners into their thinking abouttheir lives after death.
speech or of gesture or in a memorable phase of the mind itself. He believed that it wasfor the man of letters to record these epiphanies with extreme care, seeing that they themselves are the most delicate and evanescent of moments." -Stephen Hero-
SYMBOLS:WINDOWSDUSK AND NIGHTTIMEFOODMUSIC
Joyce rarely uses hyperboles or emotive language, preferring simplicity and close details to create a realistic setting.The linguistic register is varied, in order to reflect character’s role, age and social class.He does not tell readers what to think, rather they are left to come to their own conclusions, contrasting the moral judgement displayed by writers like Charles Dickens.:the omniscient narrator and a single point of view are rejected. Using the STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS, character’s point of view emerges, rather than the author’s one.
1-Joyce was attacked by a dog as a young boy andended up with a severe canine phobia thatpersisted throughout his life. He was also afraid ofthunderstorms because his grandmother once toldhim that storms were a sign of God’s wrath.2-Dedham, Massachusetts, in august hosts anannual James Joyce Ramble, which is a 10K race.Each mile is dedicated to one of Joyce’s works,and actors line the streets and read from hisnovels as the runners pass.3-The last story in Joyce’s Dubliners collection,“The Dead,” was made into a film in 1987 bydirector John Huston. It was Huston’s last majorfilm before he died.
4-Joyce’s grandson, Stephen, hassupposedly destroyed many letterswritten by his grandfather.5-The library at the University Collegein Dublin is named after James Joyce.6-On the second bridge of the CanalGrande in Trieste there is a JamesJoyce’s statue.