E.M. FORSTER Born in London – New Year‟s day, 1879 Middle-class background Father died when he was just one → his mother compelled to move to Rooksnest, in the countryside, for economical matters There he lived in the “haze of elderly ladies”; attachment to this place, from which he drew inspiration for Howards End At the age of 14, they had to move to Tonbridge Wells → he studied classics but at the same time his feeling of being an outsider hardened → distaste for the English school sistem
In 1897 he entered King‟s College, Cambridge: Knew and appreciated some European writers as Proust, Ibsen, Tolstoy Acknowledged his homosexuality →fell in love with Hugh O. Meredith → Maurice Became a member of the “Apostles”; he established friendships with some intellectuals of the Bloomsbury Group In 1901 he set off on a year-long journey to Italy with his mother Lily to study Italian history, art, literature and language and to work on a novel In 1903 he published his first short story, Albergo Empedocle
Where Angels Fear to Tread The Longest Journey A Room With A View …were his first three novels, But he did not achieve a great success Until he published Howards End
Between 1912 and 1913 he travelled to India Another journey to the subcontinent in 1921 → inspiration for A Passage To India (1924), his masterpiece After this last book, he retired as a novelist He spent the second half of his life as a reader and reviewer; he was a spokesman for personal and political tolerance → he spoke in favour of D. H. Lawrence‟s Lady Chatterley’s Lover Died in Cambridge in 1970, at the age of 91
Lucy Honeychurch is touring Italy with her cousin Charlotte Bartlett. They are complaining about the fact that they have not the rooms with views that had been promised to them...
...at dinner, they meet the Emersons, who offer to swap rooms, but Charlotte refuses because she considers them impolite.But, finally, the good clergyman Mr. Beebe persuades her to accept the offer.
In those days, Lucy visits Florence, and one afternoon she witnesses a murder; George Emerson keeps her from fainting and leads her to the pension.After these occurrences, Lucy decides to avoid the Emersons.
But one day a trip to Fiesole is organized: Lucy, Charlotte and the Emersons take part in it. Lucy comes up with George, who kisses her……Charlotte sees them and the same evening she and Lucy decide to leave Florence and join the Vyses in Rome.
In England, Lucy becomes engaged to the supercilious Cecil Vyse. Mr. Beebe announces a house in the neighbourhood has been rent to the Emersons.
Freddy, Lucy‟s brother, befriends with George and invites him to play tennis one afternoon. Cecil is reading a novel, and a scene reminds the kiss in Fiesole......George, then, kisses Lucy again.
Lucy tells George to go away and not to come back; he says Cecil doesn‟t love her because he considers her an object......Lucy remains firm but the same evening breaks her engagement off.
Lucy decides to go to Greece, but she meets Mr. Emerson, who forces her to admit that she loves George.
The novel ends in Florence, where Lucy and George are spending their honeymoon, but without Mrs. Honeychurch‟s consent.
Young, naïve, charming At the beginning, she‟s quite unformed Italy challenges her values Her love towards George is contrasted by social conventions At the end, she‟s a stronger and independent woman
Lucy‟s cousin, older than her She doesn‟t want to deal with lower-class people Prejudiced and narrow-minded Represents the prototype of Victorian woman
Very simple man, socialist journalist Broad-minded, he educated his son to the ideals of freedom and real love Easy-going and outspoken Often not accepted
Shy, reserved boy Educated in an open-minded way Conventionally, he‟s an unacceptable match for Lucy He‟s intelligent, sensitive, thoughtful He wants Lucy to be herself, independent and strong
„medieval‟ Well-educated, but supercilious and pretentious Sophisticated and „superior‟ Londoner Respectable in terms of rank, but despises country society
Several novels in one: social comedy, mythic romance, novel of ideas Built upon linked antitheses: rooms/views, inside/outside, medieval/classical, lies/truth, dark/li ght Characters associated to different forms of art Titled chapters contribute to the comic effect Contrast between „dynamic‟ and „static‟ characters Buildungsroman Third-person omniscient narrator, close to the characters‟ point of view
Propriety and passion Delicacy and beauty Women‟s position and independence Oneness to nature Acceptance of the body Struggle against social barriers Growing up
Edwardian age → remains of Victorian sensibilities still alive but began to be challenged by Socialists and artists Forster‟s third novel → published in 1908 but begun in 1901, when he graduated at King‟s College After graduation, he set off a journey to Italy with his mother „grand tour‟ → common experience for the British; in those years it had been extended to middle-class people Peculiarly feminine world But everything was organized according to British habits → superficial experience of Italy
Rooms and views Light and dark The Medieval and the Classical-the Renaissance Italy and the British
Forster‟s loving experiences influenced him in writing the novel Lucy is Forster‟s alter ego Mr. Emerson was modelled on Edward Carpenter Forster takes much from Jane Austen‟s social comedies