PLANNINGP L A N N I N G I N V O LV E S S E L E C T I N GMISSIONS AND OBJECTIVES AND THEACTIONS TO ACHIEVE THEM;I T R E Q U I R E S D E C I S I O N M A K I N G T H AT I SC H O O S I N G F R O M A M O N G A LT E R N AT I V EFUTURE COURSE OF ACTION. PLANT H U S P R O V I D E S A R AT I O N A L A P P R O A C HTO PRESELECTED OBJECTIVES. P L A N N I N G A L S O S T R O N G LY I M P L I E SMANAGERIALI N N O VAT I O N S .
NATURE Planning is a vital and crucial part of an organization. Intellectual process. Planning contributes to the objectives. Planning is a selective process. Planning pervades all managerial activities. Planning is a continuous process. Planning facilitates decision making.
THE NATURE OF PLANNING Planning: looking ahead to chart the best courses of future action. Strategic planning: Long range planning to set organizational goals, objectives, and policies to determine strategies, tactics, and programs for achieving them. Top management makes strategic plans. Middle Management makes annual plans (to implement the above). For supervisors the planning period is usually a week, day, or shift ( to deal with daily work). 5
PURPOSE OF PLANNING To minimize risk by reducing the uncertainties surrounding business conditions and clarifying consequences. To increase the degree of organizational success. To facilitate the accomplishment of organizational objectives.
THE PLANNING PROCESS Define the purpose or problem and set objectives Collect and evaluate data relevant to forecasting the future (focus on the present) Develop alternative courses of action Decide on the best course of action Carry out the plan 7
FORECASTING Forecasting: Predicting future needs on the basis of historical data, present conditions, and assured future. Forecasting controls staffing, purchasing, and production decisions. Forecasting is a very important function! 8
THE RISK FACTOR You reduce risk when you collect relevant data and apply it to your forecast. In some foodservices the degree of certainty about tomorrow is high. Contingency Plan: Reduce risk by having a alternate plan in reserve. Keeping records can reduce the risks for repetitive situations. Consulting with people that have more experience also can help to reduce risk. 9
QUALITIES OF A GOOD PLAN Provides a workable solution and meets the stated objectives. Is comprehensive; it raises all relevant questions and answers them. Minimizes the degree of risks. Is specific as to time, place, supplies, tools, etc. Is flexible (can be adapted 10 to a change in the
TYPES OF PLANS AND PLANNING Standing Plan: established routine, formula, or set of procedures designed to be used in a reoccurring situation. They standardize actions so the supervisors need to manage is reduced to seeing that workers meet standards and dealing with unexpected events known as management by exception. Potential drawback: Rigidity, must make them flexible enough to deal with daily realities. 11 These plans must be updated
THE SINGLE USE PLAN A one time plan developed for a single occasion or purpose. The amount of time you spend on it depends on its nature and importance. Often its purpose is a major change of some sort or budgets. 13
DAY-BY-DAY PLANNING Top priority of the first line supervisor. Primary concern is what is to be done, who will be doing it, and adjusting various standing plans. Plan before the day begins. Establish routines simplify planning. Whenever possible reduce risks by 14
PLANNING YOUR OWN TIME Track your present time use, and analyze your use of time. Get rid of activities that waste your time (socializing, poor organization, procrastination, etc.). Set priorities. Initiate long-range solutions. Set aside regular periods of time without 15 interruption for
• Planning Still Starts and Stops at the Top • Start with a Strong Mission Six • Set Stretch Goals • Create anRules of Environment that EncouragesPlanning Learning • Design New Roles for Planning Staff • Use Temporary Task Forces
ORGANIZATIONAL GOALSOrganisational goals explain how an organisation intends to go about achieving its mission.Organizational purpose is
GOALSStrategic GoalsWhere the organization wants to be in the future.Pertain to the organization as a whole.Tactical goalsGoals that define the outcomes that major divisions and departments must achieve.
CONTINUED…Operational goalsSpecific, measurable results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals.
PETER DRUCKER’S EIGHT CONTENTAREAS IN DEVELOPING GOALS Marketing. Innovation. Productivity. Physical and financial resources. Profitability. Managerial performance and development. Worker performance and attitude. Public responsibility.