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1 anthropometry

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1 anthropometry

  1. 1. ANTHROPOMETRIC Basis of Architectural Design
  2. 2. Introduction • The idea that the physical size of the person is somehow related to the ability to function in the world is so old that it is surprising how often the concept is neglected in everyday thought and design.
  3. 3. Introduction • Nevertheless many studies have demonstrated the reductions in performance that can occur if working environments are not matched to the individuals’ body sizes.
  4. 4. Anthropometry • Derived from the two Greek word anthropo(s), human and metricos of or pertaining to measurement. • The ergonomist (a person that studies ergonomics, from the Greek: ergon - work; nomos – natural laws) therefore, uses anthropomteric data to ensure, quite literally, that the machine or the environment fits the person.
  5. 5. Anthropometry • Whenever the human operator has to interact with the environment it is important to have details of the dimensions of the appropriate body part. • So overall stature is an important determinant of, for example, room size, door height or cockpit dimensions.
  6. 6. Kinds of Anthropometry: • Structural Anthropometry (often called as Static Anthropometry) – deals with simple dimensions of the stationary human being. e.g. Weight, stature and the lengths, breadths, depths and circumferences of particular body structures.
  7. 7. Kinds of Anthropometry: • Functional Anthropometry (Dynamic Anthropometry) – deals with compound measurements of the moving human being. e.g. Reach and the angular ranges of various joints.
  8. 8. Variability in Body Shapes and sizes • Even to the least observant person one thing must be abundantly clear about body dimensions – there is wide variation between members of a population. • With such variability it should be readily apparent that anthropometric data need to be used very carefully if they are to be of value.
  9. 9. Variability in Body Shapes and sizes • Just how much larger or smaller than average a particular dimension depends on the importance and function of the feature being designed.
  10. 10. Variability in Body Shapes and sizes e.g. (1) A cockpit joystick is useless if it is placed outside the user’s reach and so the reach dimension in this case would need to be related to the reach of the smallest member of a particular user population.
  11. 11. Variability in Body Shapes and sizes e.g. (2) In military example, an escape hatch in a submarine would need to be larger enough to allow all 100% of the users through (with their clothes) in an emergency.
  12. 12. Variability in Body Shapes and sizes e.g. (3) As long as adjustable chairs are available a desk height does not need to be large enough to accommodate all user’s heights and so could possibly be designed to accommodate, say, 90 to 95%.
  13. 13. Sources of Anthropometric Variability • The wide distribution of body dimensions and shapes which maybe encountered in a population can often be due to slight genetic differences.
  14. 14. Sources of Anthropometric Variability • However, other, more readily observable variables can affect body dimensions and their variability and these include: AGE, SEX, CULTURE, OCCUPATION, and HISTORICAL TRENDS
  15. 15. Sources of Anthropometric Variability AGE • The change in body dimensions from birth to maturity is well known and, indeed, the increases occur consistently although sometimes irregularly.
  16. 16. Sources of Anthropometric Variability AGE • For height, as for most other body lengths, full growth is attained for all practical purposes by the age of 20 in males and 17 in females.
  17. 17. Sources of Anthropometric Variability AGE • Some “shrinkage” of older people has also been noted, which is mainly due to biological changes that take place as a part of the normal ageing process – flattening of discs between the vertebrae, general thinning of the weight- bearing cartilages, and so on.
  18. 18. Sources of Anthropometric Variability SEX • With the increasing observance of sexual equality in the workplace, designing for differences in body dimensions between sexes will become an important aspect of ergonomist’s task. • In this respect, males are generally larger than females for most body dimensions, and the extent of the difference varies from one dimension to another.
  19. 19. Sources of Anthropometric Variability SEX • Women, however, are larger than men in the four dimensions of chest depth, hip breadth, hip circumference and thigh circumference.
  20. 20. Sources of Anthropometric Variability CULTURE • The importance of national and cultural differences in anthropometry has been realized for some time, but until recently there has been little concerted effort to implement the relevant data in the production of new plant and machinery.
  21. 21. Sources of Anthropometric Variability CULTURE • The variability in anthropometric dimensions due to national and cultural differences may not all be as dramatic as the difference in some culture.
  22. 22. Sources of Anthropometric Variability OCCUPATION • Differences in body size and proportion among occupational groups are common and are fairly well known.
  23. 23. Sources of Anthropometric Variability OCCUPATION e.g. Many body dimensions of a manual laborer are on average larger than those of an academician. however, such differences may also be related to age, diet, exercise or many other factors, as well as the result of selection criteria designated by specific occupations.
  24. 24. Sources of Anthropometric Variability OCCUPATION • Whatever the reasons for the differences, however, anthropometric variability in different occupations must be realized so that appropriate environments can be designed for the occupation and before anthropometric data obtained from members of one occupation can be used to design the environments of another.
  25. 25. Sources of Anthropometric Variability SECULAR (HISTORICAL) TRENDS • Many people have observed that the equipment used in earlier years would too small for effective use today. • Such observations imply that the average size of the population increases over time, perhaps because of better diet and living conditions. • If true, the results would have important implications for the design of an environment that is to survive for some time.
  26. 26. Sources of Anthropometric Variability SECULAR (HISTORICAL) TRENDS • If we are getting taller, for example, then the design might need to take account of the statures of future generations as well as present-day users.
  27. 27. E N D
  28. 28. QUIZ 1 1. If we are getting taller, for example, then the design might need to take account of the statures of future generations as well as present-day users.

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