History of Natural Soap Biochemistry Project 1 by Imran * Jimmy * Lingareddy
Introduction• What is Natural Soap?• Origin of Soap• How Soap is made?• How Soap works?• Characteristics and uses of Soap• Soap manufacturing• Recent manufacturing technology
What is natural soap?• Soap is a cleansing agent mainly used Chemically for washing and speaking, soap is a salt of a fatty acid .It cleaning, but soaps is made from the are also important interaction of fats components of and oils with alkali. lubricants.• Soap normally used with water decreases surface
Origin of SoapThe word sapo, Latin for soap, first appears in Plinythe Elders Historia Naturalis, which discusses themanufacture of soap from tallow and ashes. 2800 BC : In Ancient Babylon , in the reign of Nabonidus the earliest evidence of the production of soap-like material recorded. That recipe of soap consisted of uhulu (ashes), cypress (oil) and sesame (seed oil). 2200 BC : A formula for soap was written on Babylonian clay tablet. That formula consists of
Origin of Soap (continued)• 1550 BC : Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving.• 1500 BC : Egyptian
Origin of Soap(continued)• Cleopatra even • 600 BC : There is used Shea some evidence Butter as part of that the her beauty Phoenicians were regimen. making a soap from beech ashes and tallow to wash their hair.
How is soap is made? • A Soap molecule is formed when a triglyceride reacts with either sodium or potassium hydroxide the reaction that takes place is called Saponification. • This process results in the production of Glycerol and Sodium or potassium stearate (Soap). • Each soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain, sometimes called its tail, with (oil) + Base (lye) = head. (Soap) + Fatty acid a carboxylate “A Salt” Glycerol
How soap works?• Water is largely polar, and water molecules tend to separate into fragments with opposite electrical charges, one positive(+) and one negative(-).• Fats and Oils are not polar and their molecules have no charge, so they are
Soap function (continued)• The active ion of the soap molecule is the RCOO-.• The two ends of this ion behave in different fashions. The carboxylate end (-COO-) is hydrophilic (water-loving), and it is called the "head" of the ion.• The hydrocarbon portion is hydrophobic (oil-loving) and is called the "tail" of the molecule. This unusual molecular structure is responsible for the unique surface and solubility characteristics of soaps.
Characteristics and uses of hydrocarbon portions of the soap ions• The soap are attracted to each other and form spherical aggregates known as micelles. The molecule tails that are incompatible with water are in the interior of these micelles, while the hydrophilic heads remain on the outside to interact with water. When oil is added to this system, it is taken into these micelles as tiny particles. Then it can be rinsed away.• Soaps are excellent cleansing agents and have good biodegradability.• A serious drawback which reduces their general use, is the tendency for the carboxylate ion to react with Ca+ and Mg+ ions in hard water. The result is a water insoluble salt which can be deposited on
Soap manufacturing War II. This• Boiled Process : Used before the end of World process required mixing fats and oils in large, open kettles, with caustic soda (NaOH) in the presence of steam. As salt was added, soap precipitated out and floated at the top. Later on, it was skimmed off and processed as flakes or bars. This process involved over six days to produce one batch.• Recent process: After World War II, a continuous soap manufacturing process evolved. In this process, fats and oils react directly with caustic soda. The saponification reaction accelerates at high temperatures (248°F; 120°C) and pressures (2 atm). Glycerin washed out of the system and soap was centrifuged and neutralized. This process is more efficient and allows faster recovery of glycerin.• Some more chemicals like Oleum and Alkenes were added
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