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# The speed of light

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### The speed of light

1. 1. This presentation is about how THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE SPEED OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE THE HIGHEST SPEED IN THE UNIVERSE Can be determined / calculated exactly based on The information taken from an old document That is 299792.5 km/sec.
2. 2. Perhaps you have ever known that the constant C, or the speed of light that is the highest speed in the universe has been calculated, measured or determined by the institutions below: <ul><li>US National Bureau of Standards </li></ul><ul><li>C = 299792.4574 + 0.0011 km/sec </li></ul><ul><li>The British National Physical Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>C = 299792.4590 + 0.0008 km/sec </li></ul><ul><li>17 th conference on measurements and weight standards </li></ul><ul><li>” one metre is the distance reached by the light in vacuum in 1/299792458 sec&quot;. </li></ul>
3. 3. But you should know that the constant C can be determined / calculated using the information taken from a holy book sent down 14 centuries ago.. The inventor of this calculation is a physicist from Egypt, DR. Mansour Hassab El Naby The holy Qur’an, the holy book of Islam
4. 4. It is told in the holy Qur’an: “ He directs the affairs from the heavens to the earth: then it ascends unto Him, on a Day the measure of which is a thousand years of your reckoning” (32:5) ” It is He (ALLAH) who made the sun to be a shinning glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for it, that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time)”- (10:5) ” It is He (ALLAH) who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: All (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course“ – (21:33)
5. 5. Based on verses, mainly the last verse (verse 32:5) it can be concluded that: C . t = 12000 . L where : C = the speed of the Affairs t = time in a day L = the route length of the moon’s trip in one month The distance reached by The affairs in a day is equal to The distance reached by the moon in 1000 years or 12000 months
6. 6. Many calender systems, has been tested, But only “ sidereal month calendar system ” produce the value C Which equal to the value of C based on measurement There are two month calendar systems: 1. Sinodic System , based on virtual apparition of moon’s and sun’s motions from the earth. 1 day = 24 hours 1 month = 29.53059 days 2. Sidereal System , based on relative motion of the moon’s and the sun to the star in universe. 1 day = 23 hours 56 minutes 4.0906 seconds = 86164.0906 seconds 1 month = 27.321661 days
7. 7. The moon position ! 26.92484 o This simulation is given to show you the difference between sidereal month and the sinodic Consider the moon’s position after 29.52 days The period time 360 o revolution moon = 26.92484 o revolution earth This period in 27.321661 days or 655.71586 hours. And it is called “ One sidereal moon ” The moon go back to initial position exactly in line between the sun and the earth. This period is called “ one sinodic moon”   29.1061 o
8. 8. Then consider the moon’s route during one sidereal month The route is not of a circle like you possibly imagine But in the form of a curvature with a length of L = v . T = v. T where: v = the speed of the moon T = moon revolution period = 27.321661 days 26.92848 o  L 27.321661 days 365.25636 days * 360 o = 26.92848 o  =
9. 9. A Note on the speed of moon (v) There are two types of moon’s speed : 1. Relative speed to earth which can be calculated with the following formula: v e = 2 .  . R / T where R = radius of moon revolution = 384264 km T = the period of moon’s revolution = 655.71986 hours 2. Relative speed to star or universe. This is what we need Albert Einstein proposed that this type of speed can be calculated by doing a multiplication of the first with cosine  , so that: v = V e * Cos  Where  is the angle formed by earth’s revolution during one sidereal month  = 26.92848 o Hence v e = 2 * 3.14162 * 384264 km / 655.71986 hrs = 3682.07 km/hr
10. 10. Hence: C . t = 12000 . L C . t = 12000 . v . T C . t = 12000 . ( v e . Cos  ) . T C = 12000 . v e . Cos  . T / t C = 12000 * 3682.07 km/hr * 0.89157 * 655.71986 hrs / 86164.0906 sec C = 299792.5 km/sec Remember ! L = v . T Remember ! v = v e . Cos  Remember ! v e = 3682.07 km/hr  = 26.92848 o T = 655.71986 hrs t = 86164.0906 sec
11. 11. Compare the C (the speed of the Affairs) as the result of this calculation with the C (the speed of light) which has been known ! The C calculated C = 299792.5 km/sec <ul><li>US National Bureau of Standards </li></ul><ul><li>The British National </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>17 th conference on </li></ul><ul><li>measurement and weight standard </li></ul>The C measured C = 299792.4574 + 0.0011 km/sec C = 299792.4590 + 0.0008 km/sec “ One meter is a distance reached by the light in vacuum in 1/299792458 seconds &quot;
12. 12. Alif Lam Mim. (This is) the revelation of the Book in which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the Worlds Or do they say “he (Mohammed) has forged it ?”, Nay, it is the Truth from thy Lord that thou mayest admonish a people to whom no warner has come before thee : in order that they may be rightly guided. It is Allah Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all between them, in six Days. Then He established Himself on the Throne: Ye have none, besides him, to protect or intercede (for you) . Will ye not then receive admonition ? He directs the affairs from the heavens to the earth: then it ascends unto Him, on a Day the measure of which is a thousand years of your reckoning In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful The holy Qur’an 32: 1-5
13. 13. The conclusion (from the article of Prof Elnaby) “ This calculation proved the accuracy and consistency of the constant C resulted from measurement and also shows the truth of the Holy Qur’an as revelation which is proper to be studied with a sharp analysis for the Writer is the Creator of the universe”
14. 14. Reference: Elnaby, M.H., 1990, A New Astronomical Quranic Method for The Determination of The Greatest Speed C http://www.islamicity.org/Science/960703A.HTM Fix, John D. 1995, Astronomy, Journey of the Cosmic Frontier, 1st edition, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St Louis, Missouri The Holy Quran online, http://islam.org/mosque/quran.htm