Cause & Effect: When oceanic plate goes
under continental crust because it has more
dense. It forms volcanoes and trench.
Cause & Effect: Two Plates move toward each
other and forms mountain or trench.
Cause & Effect: Two plates move away from
each other, forms Mid-ocean ridge or valley.
Cause & Effect: Two plates slide pass each
other and creat earthquake and tsunami.
San Andreas fault
Earthquake also called seismic wave, is
caused by the movement of the crusts in
China Sichuan earthquake in 2008
● P wave ( Primary wave, comes first and move up and
● S wave ( Secondary wave, comes after P wave, moves
from left to right).
● L wave ( Love wave is the most dangerous wave,
moves all over).
● Epicenter: the original point where earthquake begins
above the ground.
● Focus: the point where
earthquake starts under
Tsunami is caused by the movement of the lands under the
ocean and lead to huge ocean wave and horrible
Tsunami in Japan in 2014
Normal Fault: Moves down.
Reverse Fault: Moves up.
Strike-slip Fault: Moves pass away.
Conviction current circulates hot and cold
materials in the mantle and creates hot spot
where has extreme hot temperature and active
Cinder Cone: It has bowl shape crater and
shorter than other volcanoes, which made from
lava push out in the center of the volcano, cool
and breaks, fall as cinders
around the vent.
Composite Volcano: steep sided, it has vents
where magma comes out beside the crater.
Fuji Volcano in Japan
Shield volcano is wide volcano built of fluid lava
Mauna Loa Shield Volcano
Volcano is a mountain has a crater or vent
where magma comes through. It erupt because
of density and pressure. When surrounding
rock has more dense than magma causes
magma to rise.