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Cardiology Mnemonics
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GI system mnemonics

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GI system mnemonics

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GI system mnemonics

  1. 1. By the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful GI system mnemonics embryo Endodermal pouches Endodermal pouches form the following organs / glands: You have 1 tongue and 2 tonsils  So from Ventral part of 1st Endodermal pouch forms the tongue  From ventral part of 2nd Endodermal pouch forms tonsils From THIrd endodermal pouch forms THymus and Inferior parathyroid Note that superior parathyroid and follicular C - cells of thyroid forms from the 4th endodermal pouch (The superior and more complicated one arises from the fourth) Foregut derivatives "Little Embryo People Do Like Swallowing, Producing Gas": Lungs Esophagus Pancreas Duodenum (proximal) Liver Stomach Pancreas Gall bladder anatomy Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres "VC goes with VC": The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default.
  2. 2. Retroperitoneal structures list SAD PUCKER: Suprarenal glands Aorta & IVC Duodenum (half) Pancreas Ureters Colon (ascending & descending) Kidneys Esophagus (anterior & left covered) Rectum Lengths of 4 parts of Duodenum ( Remember : 1-2-3-4 = 2-3-4-1 ) : 1st part = 2 inches 2nd part = 3" 3rd part = 4" 4th part = 1" To remember the lengths , remember the story of a tiger, which ate a dozen doctors who had gone to the forest for a picnic, including the famous Doctor Indiana Jones. News reported in Radio: One (tiger) Ate 12 (1-8-12) , includingDr. Indiana Jones referring to 1, 8 and 12 feets, which are the respective lengths of Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum. All muscles of LARynx are supplied by RECcurent laryngeal nerve except the CRICothyroid" Medial pterygoid closes your mouth - When you say "M" you have to close your mouth. Lateral pterygoid opens your mouth - When you say "L" you have to open your mouth.
  3. 3. Hyoid bone: muscle attachments "Christ, He Didn't Screw Girls Much. That's Obvious, Stupi d": · The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly. · Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Constricter (middle) Hyoglossus Digastric Stylohyoid Geniohyoid Myloyoid Thyrohyoid Omohyoid Sternohyoid Internal pudendal branches "I Pee Pee But Don't Dump!": Inferior rectal Posterior scrotal (or labial) Perineal Bulb Deep artery Dorsal artery Pharma Drugs causing hepatic necrosis Remember "Very Angry Hepatocytes": Valproic acid Acetaminophen Halothane Somatostatins inhibits G4TIP: Growth hormone Gastrin Glucagon
  4. 4. Gastric acid TSH Insulin Pancreatic enzyme Vitamins and Hypervitaminosis Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, K (Remember FADEK) Hypervitaminosis A causes Anomalies (teratogenicity) Hypervitaminosis E causes necrotising Enterocolitis Hypervitaminosis K causes Kernicterus due to hemolysis patho Ulcerative colitis: definition of a severe attack A STATE: Anemia less than 10g/dl Stool frequency greater than 6 stools/day with blood Temperature greater than 37.5 Albumin less than 30g/L Tachycardia greater than 90bpm ESR greater than 30mm/hr What is the problem in Criggler NaJJar & Gillbert syndrome? The defect is in CoNJuGatIon (SF-LP) Sago spleen - Amyloid deposit in Follicles Lardaceous spleen - Amyloid deposits mostly in Pulp Causes of Chronic Diarrhoea Remember the 5 Cs as Causes of Chronic diarrhoea: Crohn's disease Colitis (Ulcerative) or Ulcerative Colitis Coeliac diseases Cystic fibrosis Cow's milk intolerance
  5. 5. Bilirubin: common causes for increased levels "HOT Liver": Hemolysis Obstruction Tumor Liver disease Ulcerative colitis: complications "PAST Colitis": Pyoderma gangrenosum Ankylosing spondylitis Sclerosing pericholangitis Toxic megacolon Colon carcinoma Crohn's disease: morphology, symptoms CHRISTMAS: Cobblestones High temperature Reduced lumen Intestinal fistulae Skip lesions Transmural (all layers, may ulcerate) Malabsorption Abdominal pain Submucosal fibrosis Cirrhosis: causes of hepatic cirrhosis HEPATIC: Hemochromatosis (primary) Enzyme deficiency (alpha-1-anti-trypsin) Post hepatic (infection + drug induced) Alcoholic Tyrosinosis Indian childhood (galactosemia) Cardiac/ Cholestatic (biliary)/ Cancer/ Copper (Wilson's)
  6. 6. Whipple's disease: clinical manifestations SHELDA: Serositis Hyperpigmentation of skin Eating less (weight loss) Lymphadenopathy Diarrhea Arthritis Liver failure (chronic): signs found on the arms CLAPS: Clubbing Leukonychia Asterixis Palmar erythema Scratch marks Splenomegaly: causes CHIMP: Cysts Haematological ( eg CML, myelofibrosis) Infective (eg viral (IM), bacterial) Metabolic/ Misc (eg amyloid, Gauchers) Portal hypertension Micro Enteric fever The investigations to be done in enteric fever: (Remember BASU) 1st week - Blood, 2nd week - Agglutination(WIDAL), 3rd week - Stool, 4th week - Urine
  7. 7. H. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines) · Alternatively: TOMB: Tetracycline Omeprazole Metronidazole Bismuth B vitamin names "The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious": · In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12)
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GI system mnemonics

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