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By the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful
GI system mnemonics
Endodermal pouches form the following organs / glands:
You have 1 tongue and 2 tonsils
So from Ventral part of 1st Endodermal pouch forms the tongue
From ventral part of 2nd Endodermal pouch forms tonsils
From THIrd endodermal pouch forms THymus and Inferior parathyroid
Note that superior parathyroid and follicular C - cells of thyroid forms
from the 4th endodermal pouch (The superior and more complicated
one arises from the fourth)
"Little Embryo People Do Like Swallowing, Producing Gas":
Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with
quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres "VC goes with VC":
The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior].
Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default.
Retroperitoneal structures list
Aorta & IVC
Colon (ascending & descending)
Esophagus (anterior & left covered)
Lengths of 4 parts of Duodenum ( Remember : 1-2-3-4 = 2-3-4-1 ) :
1st part = 2 inches
2nd part = 3"
3rd part = 4"
4th part = 1"
To remember the lengths , remember the story of a tiger, which ate a
dozen doctors who had gone to the forest for a picnic, including the
famous Doctor Indiana Jones. News reported in
Radio: One (tiger) Ate 12 (1-8-12) , includingDr. Indiana Jones referring
to 1, 8 and 12 feets, which are the respective lengths
of Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum.
All muscles of LARynx are supplied by RECcurent laryngeal nerve
except the CRICothyroid"
Medial pterygoid closes your mouth - When you say "M" you have to
close your mouth.
Lateral pterygoid opens your mouth - When you say "L" you have to
open your mouth.
Hyoid bone: muscle
attachments "Christ, He Didn't Screw Girls Much. That's Obvious, Stupi
· The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly, the second
sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly.
· Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial:
Internal pudendal branches "I Pee Pee But Don't Dump!":
Posterior scrotal (or labial)
Drugs causing hepatic necrosis
Remember "Very Angry Hepatocytes":
Somatostatins inhibits G4TIP:
Vitamins and Hypervitaminosis
Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, K (Remember FADEK)
Hypervitaminosis A causes Anomalies (teratogenicity)
Hypervitaminosis E causes necrotising Enterocolitis
Hypervitaminosis K causes Kernicterus due to hemolysis
Ulcerative colitis: definition of a severe attack A STATE:
Anemia less than 10g/dl
Stool frequency greater than 6 stools/day with blood
Temperature greater than 37.5
Albumin less than 30g/L
Tachycardia greater than 90bpm
ESR greater than 30mm/hr
What is the problem in Criggler NaJJar & Gillbert syndrome?
The defect is in CoNJuGatIon
Sago spleen - Amyloid deposit in Follicles
Lardaceous spleen - Amyloid deposits mostly in Pulp
Causes of Chronic Diarrhoea
Remember the 5 Cs as Causes of Chronic diarrhoea:
Colitis (Ulcerative) or Ulcerative Colitis
Cow's milk intolerance
Bilirubin: common causes for increased levels "HOT Liver":
Ulcerative colitis: complications "PAST Colitis":
Crohn's disease: morphology, symptoms CHRISTMAS:
Transmural (all layers, may ulcerate)
Cirrhosis: causes of hepatic cirrhosis HEPATIC:
Enzyme deficiency (alpha-1-anti-trypsin)
Post hepatic (infection + drug induced)
Indian childhood (galactosemia)
Cardiac/ Cholestatic (biliary)/ Cancer/ Copper (Wilson's)
Whipple's disease: clinical manifestations SHELDA:
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Eating less (weight loss)
Liver failure (chronic): signs found on the arms CLAPS:
Splenomegaly: causes CHIMP:
Haematological ( eg CML, myelofibrosis)
Infective (eg viral (IM), bacterial)
Metabolic/ Misc (eg amyloid, Gauchers)
The investigations to be done in enteric fever: (Remember BASU)
1st week - Blood,
2nd week - Agglutination(WIDAL),
3rd week - Stool,
4th week - Urine
H. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines)
· Alternatively: TOMB:
B vitamin names
"The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious":
· In increasing order: