Don’t let this happen to          you!!
RNARibonucleic Acid
Structure of RNA    Single stranded    Ribose Sugar    5 carbon sugar    Phosphate group    Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine...
Types of RNA Three main types Messenger RNA (mRNA) – transfers  DNA code to ribosomes for translation. Transfer RNA (tR...
Transcription  RNA molecules are produced by copying part   of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into   complementary sequen...
How Does it Work? RNA Polymerase looks for a region on  the DNA known as a promoter, where it  binds and begins transcrip...
The Genetic Code This is the language of mRNA. Based on the 4 bases of mRNA. “Words” are 3 RNA sequences called  codons...
Genetic Codes
Translation  During translation, the cell uses information   from messenger RNA to produce proteins.  A – Transcription ...
MUTATIONS Changes in DNA that affect genetic information
Mutations Gene mutations result from changes in a  single gene. Chromosomal mutations  involve changes whole chromosomes.
Gene Mutations Point Mutations – changes in  one or a few nucleotides   Substitution      THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT     ...
Gene Mutations Frameshift Mutations – shifts  the reading frame of the  genetic message so that the  protein may not be a...
Chromosome Mutations Changes in number and structure of entire  chromosomes Original Chromosome ABC * DEF Deletion     ...
Significance ofMutations•Most are neutral  • Eye color  • Birth marks• Some are harmful  • Sickle Cell Anemia  • Down Synd...
What CausesMutations? There are two ways in which DNA can  become mutated:   Mutations can be inherited.     Parent to ...
Chromosome Mutations Down Syndrome   Chromosome 21 does    not separate correctly.   They have 47    chromosomes in ste...
Chromosome Mutations Cri-du-chat   Deletion of material on 5th    chromosome   Characterized by the cat-like    cry mad...
Sex ChromosomeAbnormalities Klinefelter’s  Syndrome      XXY, XXYY, XXXY      Male      Sterility      Small testicle...
Sex ChromosomeAbnormalities XYY Syndrome   Normal male traits   Often tall and thin   Associated with antisocial and b...
Sex ChromosomeMutations Turner’s Syndrome   X   Female   sex organs dont    mature at    adolescence   sterility   s...
Sex ChromosomeMutations XXX    Trisomy X    Female    Little or no visible differences    tall stature    learning d...
Some   mutations evenmake   it on SNL!
Rna and mutation
Rna and mutation
Rna and mutation
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Rna and mutation

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Rna and mutation

  1. 1. Don’t let this happen to you!!
  2. 2. RNARibonucleic Acid
  3. 3. Structure of RNA  Single stranded  Ribose Sugar  5 carbon sugar  Phosphate group  Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
  4. 4. Types of RNA Three main types Messenger RNA (mRNA) – transfers DNA code to ribosomes for translation. Transfer RNA (tRNA) – brings amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Ribosomes are made of rRNA and protein.
  5. 5. Transcription  RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into complementary sequence in RNA, a process called transcription.  During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of mRNA.
  6. 6. How Does it Work? RNA Polymerase looks for a region on the DNA known as a promoter, where it binds and begins transcription. RNA strands are then edited. Some parts are removed (introns) - which are not expressed – and other that are left are called exons or expressed genes.
  7. 7. The Genetic Code This is the language of mRNA. Based on the 4 bases of mRNA. “Words” are 3 RNA sequences called codons. The strand aaacguucgccc would be separated as aaa-cgu-ucg-ccc the amino acids would then be Lysine – Arginine – Serine - Proline
  8. 8. Genetic Codes
  9. 9. Translation  During translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.  A – Transcription occurs in nucleus.  B – mRNA moves to the cytoplasm then to the ribosomes. tRNA “read” the mRNA and obtain the amino acid coded for.  C – Ribosomes attach amino acids together forming a polypeptide chain.  D – Polypeptide chain keeps growing until a stop codon is reached.
  10. 10. MUTATIONS Changes in DNA that affect genetic information
  11. 11. Mutations Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. Chromosomal mutations involve changes whole chromosomes.
  12. 12. Gene Mutations Point Mutations – changes in one or a few nucleotides  Substitution  THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT  THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT  Insertion  THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT  THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE RAT  Deletion  THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT  THE FAT ATE THE RAT
  13. 13. Gene Mutations Frameshift Mutations – shifts the reading frame of the genetic message so that the protein may not be able to perform its function.  Insertion  THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT  THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T H  Deletion  THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT  TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT H
  14. 14. Chromosome Mutations Changes in number and structure of entire chromosomes Original Chromosome ABC * DEF Deletion AC * DEF Duplication ABBC * DEF Inversion AED * CBF Translocation ABC * JKL GHI * DEF
  15. 15. Significance ofMutations•Most are neutral • Eye color • Birth marks• Some are harmful • Sickle Cell Anemia • Down Syndrome• Some are beneficial • Sickle Cell Anemia to Malaria • Immunity to HIV
  16. 16. What CausesMutations? There are two ways in which DNA can become mutated:  Mutations can be inherited.  Parent to child  Mutations can be acquired.  Environmental damage  Mistakes when DNA is copied
  17. 17. Chromosome Mutations Down Syndrome  Chromosome 21 does not separate correctly.  They have 47 chromosomes in stead of 46.  Children with Down Syndrome develop slower, may have heart and stomach illnesses and vary greatly in their degree of inteligence.
  18. 18. Chromosome Mutations Cri-du-chat  Deletion of material on 5th chromosome  Characterized by the cat-like cry made by cri-du-chat babies  Varied levels of metal handicaps
  19. 19. Sex ChromosomeAbnormalities Klinefelter’s Syndrome  XXY, XXYY, XXXY  Male  Sterility  Small testicles  Breast enlargement
  20. 20. Sex ChromosomeAbnormalities XYY Syndrome  Normal male traits  Often tall and thin  Associated with antisocial and behavioral problems
  21. 21. Sex ChromosomeMutations Turner’s Syndrome  X  Female  sex organs dont mature at adolescence  sterility  short stature
  22. 22. Sex ChromosomeMutations XXX  Trisomy X  Female  Little or no visible differences  tall stature  learning disabilities  limited fertility
  23. 23. Some mutations evenmake it on SNL!

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