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  1. 1. HIV/AIDSWhat Do You Know?
  2. 2. HIV/AIDS What Do You Know? What is HIV? What is AIDS? "Helping kids understand about AIDS is the most How is the disease transmitted? important thing I do. Some kids like to pretend that its not happening in the world. By letting them In what part of the world is know whats really going on, I might save HIV/AIDS most prevalent? someones life." Hydeia L. Broadbent AIDS patient and activist. Who is vulnerable to contracting HIV/AIDS?
  3. 3. HIV/AIDS Terms to KnowHIV: the Human Immunodeficiency Virus a retrovirus that attacks and destroys a type of white blood cell called a CD4 cell attacks the immune system – since the CD4’s main function is to fight disease, when a person’s CD4 cell count gets low, they are more susceptible to illnesses HIV is the virus that eventually causes AIDS An HIV positive test result does not mean a person has AIDS HIV/AIDS currently no cureAIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome the final stage of HIV infection. when the immune system CD4 cells drop to a very low level, a persons ability to fight infection is lost
  4. 4. HIV/AIDS Terms to KnowAIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome the final stage of HIV infection. when the immune system CD4 cells drop to a very low level, a persons ability to fight infection is lost a collection of infections and cancers that people with HIV might develop if a person gets one of these infections or cancers after they are HIV+ they are said to have AIDS. many of the infections that cause AIDS are harmless to a healthy immune system. HIV/AIDS can infect anyone regardless of age, race or sexual preference.
  5. 5. HIV/AIDS Four Stages of HIV  Stage 1: Primary• Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection• no symptoms at all• Infected person can infect other people  Stage 2: Asymptomatic• Lasts for an average of ten years• This stage is free from symptoms• There may be swollen glands• The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels• HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  6. 6. HIV/AIDS Four Stages of HIV  Stage 3: Symptomatic• The symptoms are mild• The immune system deteriorates• Emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers  Stage 4: HIV -> AIDS• The immune system weakens• The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
  7. 7. HIV/AIDS Symptoms Diarrhea or other bowel changes Fatigue Fever Loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss Dry cough or shortness of breath Night sweats Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin Confusion, difficulty concentrating, or personality changes Repeated outbreaks of cold sores or genital herpes sores Tingling, numbness, and weakness in the limbs Mouth sores or a yeast infection of the mouth
  8. 8. HIV/AIDS Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS• Bacterial – Tuberculosis (TB) – Strep pneumonia• Viral – Kaposi Sarcoma – Herpes – Influenza (flu)
  9. 9. HIV/AIDS Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS• Parasitic – Pneumocystis carinii• Fungal – Candida – Cryptococcus
  10. 10. HIV/AIDS Modes of Transmission Exchange of bodily fluids
  11. 11. HIV/AIDS Testing Options Anonymous Testing Confidential Testing Administration Blood Urine Oral
  12. 12. HIV/AIDS Blood Testing• Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA)• Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA)• Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)• Western Blot Confirmatory test
  13. 13. HIV/AIDS Urine Testing• Urine Western Blot – As sensitive as testing blood – Safe way to screen for HIV – Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV Oral TestingOrasure The only FDA approved HIV antibody. As accurate as blood testing Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue. NOT A SALIVA TEST!
  14. 14. HIV/AIDS Treatment OptionsAntiretroviralDrugs• Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors Opportunistic – AZT (Zidovudine) Infection• Non-Nucleoside Treatment Transcriptase inhibitors – Viramune (Nevirapine)• Protease inhibitors – Norvir (Ritonavir)
  15. 15. HIV/AIDS Prevention Abstinence Safe/Protected Sex  Condoms – latex or polyurethane condom (not natural skin condom)  HIV testing before intercourse with partner  Talk with partner/s about your and their sexual history Monogamy  Reduce number of sex partners Sterile needles  Do not share intravenous (IV) needles, syringes, cookers, cotton, eyedroppers, etc.  Donate blood, plasma, semen, body organs, or body tissues to reputable medical centers Do not share personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or sex toys, that may be contaminated with blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.
  16. 16. HIV/AIDS Basic Facts Sub-Saharan Africa 25.8 million people living with HIV Asia 8.3 million people living with HIV North America, Western and Central 1.9 million people living with HIV Europe Eastern Europe and Central Asia 1.6 million people living with HIV Middle East and North Africa 510,000 people living with HIV Caribbean 300,000 people living with HIV Oceania 74,000 people living with HIV Latin America 1.8 million people living with HIVSource: UNAIDS AIDS Epidemic Update 2005
  17. 17. HIV/AIDS 2002 HIV Infections by Age Group Source: UNAIDS/WHO
  18. 18. HIV/AIDS Basic Facts Every minute five people around the world between the ages of 10 and 24 are infected with HIV. There are 2.5 million children under the age of 15 living with the disease worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of new infections occurs among young people between the ages of 15 and 24. Of the 3 million who died of AIDS in 2003, 500,000 were children. The total number of children orphaned by AIDS – 13.2 million as of 2001 – is expected to more than double by 2010.Source: UNAIDS. <> (April 29, 2004).Source: UNAIDS, “AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2003,” p.3.Source: UNICEF, “Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis,” p.6 [publication on-line] (February 17, 2004).Source: UNAIDS, “AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2003,” p.3.Source: UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS. “Fact Sheet.” 2001.
  19. 19. HIV/AIDS Source: UNAIDS/WHO
  20. 20. HIV/AIDS Recap andDiscussion  How can HIV/AIDS be transmitted? How“Care for us and accept us – do children contract HIV? we are all human beings. We are normal. We have hands. We have feet. We  Who is most vulnerable? can walk, we can talk, we have needs just live  How can you prevent yourself from everyone else – don’t be contracting HIV? afraid of us – we are all the same!”  How do you think people would react if Nkosi Johnson you had HIV/AIDS? 13 International AIDS Conference th
  21. 21. HIV/AIDS What Can You Do? Educate yourself about HIV/AIDS. Contact local, state, and national politicians for support for HIV/AIDS.  Write letters asking for their opinion on HIV/AIDS. Talk to your parents about HIV/AIDS.  Educate the adults in your life! Advocate for HIV/AIDS awareness!  Begin a social awareness/human rights club.
  22. 22. HIV/AIDS For More www.unaids.orgCenter for Disease Control Alliance for Children, Youth Youth Advocate Program& Families www.yapi.orgPopulation Services