History of the Microscope


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  • http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/index.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/ponddip/index.html
  • History of the Microscope

    1. 1. Short History of the Microscope
    2. 2. Background The microscope was first built in 1595 by Hans and Zacharias Janssen (1588-1631) in Holland. Later, it was perfected in the 17th century in several countries, including by Robert Hooke (1635- 1703), in England but most notably by a Dutchman, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723).
    3. 3.  Around the 1st century, someone discovered that looking through a crystal made things look larger
    4. 4.  Thatpiece of crystal was called a “magnifying glass” and then later was called a lens because it was shaped like a lentil seed. =
    5. 5.  In the 13th century (1200s) an Italian inventor made the first eye glasses, allowing the wearer to have magnification. His name was Salvino D’Armate. Eye glasses were also called spectacles.
    6. 6.  The earliest forms of magnification were magnifying glasses, usually between 6x to 10x, and were used for looking at tiny insects. These excited general wonder when used to view fleas or tiny creeping things and so were dubbed "flea glasses."
    7. 7.  Themicroscope was first built in 1595 by Zacharias Janssen and his father Hans in Holland.
    8. 8.  The first compound microscopes produced by the Janssens were simply a tube with lenses at each end. The magnification of these early scopes ranged from 3X to 9X, depending on the size of the diaphragm openings.
    9. 9.  14th century lenses were used in spectacles Late 16th century the Dutch refined the art of lens grinding  significant magnification. 1600s – lenses first mounted on permanent frameworks (so distance could be changed) – Why would this be important?  To focus the image
    10. 10.  Next, lenses were paired together. These formed the earliest compound microscopes and telescopes. – Why would this be useful?  To increase the magnification
    11. 11. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) Developed a primitive compound microscope In Micrographia (1665), he coined the word cell to describe the features of plant tissue (cork from the bark of an oak tree) he was able to discover under the microscope.
    12. 12. Illustration of Cork Cells by RobertHooke
    13. 13. Using a much improved microscope, with a monocular eyepiece, awooden tube, a stage for holding a specimen, and a glass globe fullof water to concentrate light onto it, Hooke produced marvelousillustrations, which were published in 1667, in his famous bookMicrographia, which fired the imagination of his contemporaries,including van Leeuwenhoek.
    14. 14. Robert Hooke’s Cork Cells
    15. 15. Illustrations from Micrographia
    16. 16. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) He gained much of his inspiration form reading Hookes Micrographia. Used his new instrument, reaching 300x with a single lens (more powerful than Hooke’s) and discovered startling microscopic things, such as protozoa and spermatozoa, or to discover the microscopic structure of known things, such as fleas and plant leaves.
    17. 17.  Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to see bacteria, yeast, and life found in a drop of pond water. He refined lens grinding so that living things could be seen through the microscope.
    18. 18.  Thenthere was little change until the Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)
    19. 19. Changes of the Industrial Revolution Standardized parts (which were interchangeable with other microscopes) lead to mass production This triggered a drop in price  increased access  new discoveries  clearer images In approx. 1880  modern microscopes were being used
    20. 20.  With the advancement of technology and improved optics, the compound light microscope came into being.
    21. 21. Other types of microscopes: Electron Microscope Developed in the 1930s Allowed for higher magnification Used electron beams (instead of light) and focused with an electromagnet (no lenses) Light microscope magnifies up to 2000X Electron microscope magnifies up to 50000X or higher Better quality images at higher magnification
    22. 22. Electron Microscope Images
    23. 23. Resources:http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/microscope.htmhttp://www.cas.muohio.edu/mbi-ws/microscopes/fathers.html