Cellular Transport      Notes
About Cell Membranes1.All cells have a cell  membrane2.Functions:  a.Controls what enters     and exits the cell to     ma...
About Cell Membranes (continued)3.Structure of cell membraneLipid Bilayer -2 layers of phospholipids  a.Phosphate head is ...
Polar heads Fluid Mosaic             love water   Model of the             & dissolve. cell membrane              Non-pola...
About Cell Membranes (continued)• 4. Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it   a.Selectively permeable: Allows some     mo...
About Cell Membranes (continued)• 5. Size (macro or micro), charge (+ or -) and  solubility (lipid-soluble or not) affect ...
Structure of the Cell Membrane                         Outside of cell                                               Carbo...
•Animations of ActiveTypes of Cellular Transport            Transport & Passive                                           ...
Types of Cellular Transport•   Bulk Transport    1. Endocytosis       Phagocystosis       Pinocytosis       Receptor-media...
Passive Transport•   cell uses no energy•   molecules move randomly•   Molecules spread out from an area of    high concen...
3 Types of Passive Transport1. Diffusion2. Facilitative Diffusion – diffusion with   the help of transport proteins ,3. Os...
Passive Transport:                                       Simple Diffusion A         1. Diffusion1. Diffusion: random movem...
Passive Transport:             1. Diffusion• Occurs in liquid or gas mediumDiffusion of a solute within a solvent is   aff...
Passive Transport:  2. Facilitated Diffusion2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of specific particles  through membrane tr...
Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion A                             BThere are 2 types of  membrane transport  prote...
Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion                                      Glucose                                  ...
Passive Transport:                Osmosis      3. Osmosis                       animation• 3.Osmosis: diffusion of  water ...
The water molecules will continue to cross the semi-permeablemembrane until an equilibrium is reached, where the two solut...
Passive Transport:      3. OsmosisWater is found inside and outside of the cell,  separated by a semi-permeable membraneTh...
Passive Transport:        3. OsmosisWater solution with less solute (more diluted solution because of more water) =  highe...
Passive Transport:   3. Osmosis Tonicity – strength of a solution in relation to osmosis 3 Types: Isotonic Hypotonic Hyper...
If the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides, the water willmove back in forth but it wont have any result...
"HYPO" means less                                           In this case there are less solute                            ...
"HYPER" means moreIn this case there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, whichcauses the water to be sucked...
Active Transport•cell uses energy (ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate)•actively moves molecules to where they are needed•Moveme...
SodiumExample: Sodium                    Potassium Pumps-Potassium Pumps                   (Active Transport              ...
Types of Bulk Transport1. Endocytosis:    taking bulky   material that can’t use transport   proteins (like macromolecules...
Types of Bulk Transport Phagocytosis – “cell eating” -   Process by which cells take in large particles by     infolding t...
Types of Bulk Transport Pinocytosis – “cell drinking” -   Process of taking in fluids into the cell by invagination     of...
Types of Bulk TransportReceptor-mediated Endocytosis – “cell drinking”-   Compared to pinocytosis, is very specific. The p...
Types of Active Transport2. Exocytosis: Forces          Endocytosis &                                Exocytosis  material ...
Effects of Osmosis on Life• Osmosis- diffusion of water through a  selectively permeable membrane• Water is so small and t...
•    Osmosis                                                Animations for         Hypotonic Solution                  iso...
•    Osmosis                                                Animations for         Hypertonic Solution                 iso...
•    Osmosis                                                   Animations for           Isotonic Solution                 ...
What type of solution are these cells in ?             A          B           C         Hypertonic   Isotonic   Hypotonic
How Organisms Deal                       •   Paramecium                                                  (protist) removin...
This powerpoint was kindly donated towww.worldofteaching.comhttp://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over athousand power...
Cell Transport 1
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Cell Transport 1

  1. 1. Cellular Transport Notes
  2. 2. About Cell Membranes1.All cells have a cell membrane2.Functions: a.Controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain an internal balance called homeostasis TEM picture of a b.Provides protection and real cell membrane. support for the cell
  3. 3. About Cell Membranes (continued)3.Structure of cell membraneLipid Bilayer -2 layers of phospholipids a.Phosphate head is polar (hydrophilic or water Phospholipid loving) b.Fatty acid tails non-polar (hydrophobic or water fearing) c.Proteins embedded in Lipid Bilayer membrane
  4. 4. Polar heads Fluid Mosaic love water Model of the & dissolve. cell membrane Non-polar Membrane move tails hide from water. Carbohydrate cell markersProteins
  5. 5. About Cell Membranes (continued)• 4. Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it a.Selectively permeable: Allows some molecules in and keeps other molecules out b.The structure helps it be selective! Pores
  6. 6. About Cell Membranes (continued)• 5. Size (macro or micro), charge (+ or -) and solubility (lipid-soluble or not) affect a molecule’s ability to cross the cell membrane. In general, small noncharged, lipid-soluble molecules easily cross the cell membranes Pores
  7. 7. Structure of the Cell Membrane Outside of cell Carbohydrate Proteins chains Lipid Bilayer Transport Protein Phospholipids Inside of cell Animations (cytoplasm) of membraneGo to structureSection:
  8. 8. •Animations of ActiveTypes of Cellular Transport Transport & Passive Transport Weeee!!• Passive Transport ! cell doesn’t use energy 1. Diffusion high 2. Facilitated Diffusion 3. Osmosis low Tonicity Water Potential This is gonna• Active Transport be hard work!! high cell does use energy low
  9. 9. Types of Cellular Transport• Bulk Transport 1. Endocytosis Phagocystosis Pinocytosis Receptor-mediated 2. Exocytosis
  10. 10. Passive Transport• cell uses no energy• molecules move randomly• Molecules spread out from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.• (HighLow)• Three types:
  11. 11. 3 Types of Passive Transport1. Diffusion2. Facilitative Diffusion – diffusion with the help of transport proteins ,3. Osmosis – diffusion of water
  12. 12. Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion A 1. Diffusion1. Diffusion: random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (High to Low)• Diffusion continues until all molecules are evenly spaced (equilibrium is reached)-Note: molecules will still move around but stay spread out. http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
  13. 13. Passive Transport: 1. Diffusion• Occurs in liquid or gas mediumDiffusion of a solute within a solvent is affected by several factors: Temperature Pressure Density of the solvent Concentration Gradient Solubility of the solute http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
  14. 14. Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of specific particles through membrane transport proteins to help them move through the cell membrane a. Transport Proteins are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membrane b. Transports larger or charged molecules c. Concentration gradient required – can’t transport from low to high concentration d. Energy not needed e. Rate of transport reaches a maximum when all membrane transport proteins are used up (saturated) f. Membrane transport proteins are sensitive to inhibitors that can cause them not to function
  15. 15. Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion A BThere are 2 types of membrane transport proteins involved:Channel proteins – contain tunnels/openings that serve as passageways of Facilitated molecules Diffusion diffusion (LipidCarrier proteins – undergo (Channel Bilayer) temporary binding to the Protein) molecule it carries resulting in conformational change that moves the molecule through the membrane Carrier Protein
  16. 16. Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion Glucose moleculesCellular Transport From a- High High Concentration • Channel Proteins animations Cell Membrane Protein Low Concentration Low channel Transport Through a Go to ProteinSection:
  17. 17. Passive Transport: Osmosis 3. Osmosis animation• 3.Osmosis: diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane •Water moves freely through pores. •Solute (green) to large to move across.
  18. 18. The water molecules will continue to cross the semi-permeablemembrane until an equilibrium is reached, where the two solutionsare of equal concentration.
  19. 19. Passive Transport: 3. OsmosisWater is found inside and outside of the cell, separated by a semi-permeable membraneThe presence of different solutes in the water solutions in and out of the cell means concentration of water on both sides is different.Water Potential – term for movement of water molecules as it undergoes osmosis- The measure of the difference between the “force” that pushes water molecules and the “force” exerted by the membrane
  20. 20. Passive Transport: 3. OsmosisWater solution with less solute (more diluted solution because of more water) = higher water potentialWater solution with more solute (more concentrated solution) = lower water potentialWater Potential Gradient - when 2 solutions of different water potentials are separated by a semipermeable membrane, thus allowing osmosis to occurOsmotic Pressure – “force” that moves water molecules through a semi- permeable membrane
  21. 21. Passive Transport: 3. Osmosis Tonicity – strength of a solution in relation to osmosis 3 Types: Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic Remember: Salt is a solute, when it is concentrated inside or outside the cell, it will draw the water in its direction. This is also why you get thirsty after eating something salty.
  22. 22. If the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides, the water willmove back in forth but it wont have any result on the overall amount ofwater on either side."ISO" means the same
  23. 23. "HYPO" means less In this case there are less solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, since salt sucks, water will move into the cell, causing it to swell. The cell will gain water and grow larger. As osmosis continues, osmotic pressure builds up inside the cell causing cell lysis.In plant cells, the vacuoles will fill and the plant becomes stiff and rigid.The pressure exerted by the water molecule is called TURGORPRESSURE, and the phenomenon TURGIDITY. The turgor pressure inplants will not result in cell lysis as the cell wall keeps the plant frombursting.TURGIDITY is important in maintaining the firm and erect position of aplant.
  24. 24. "HYPER" means moreIn this case there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, whichcauses the water to be sucked in that direction.Causes cells to shrink and lose shape because of water loss.In plant cells, the central vacuole loses water and the cells shrink, causingwilting (plasmolysis). In animal cells, the cells also shrink.In both cases, the cell may die.
  25. 25. Active Transport•cell uses energy (ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate)•actively moves molecules to where they are needed•Movement of molecules against concentration gradient(concentration gradient not required)•Movement from an area of low concentration to anarea of high concentration (Low  High)•Transport proteins are highly specific•Involves carrier proteins (like facilitated diffusion) oftencalled pumps because they use energy to movemolecules against a concentration gradient
  26. 26. SodiumExample: Sodium Potassium Pumps-Potassium Pumps (Active Transport using proteins)are important in nerveresponses. Theytransfer Na and Kions in and out of thenerve and musclecells. Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!
  27. 27. Types of Bulk Transport1. Endocytosis: taking bulky material that can’t use transport proteins (like macromolecules) into a cell • Uses energy • Cell membrane in-folds around the macromolecule to be transported • 3 Types:  Phagocytosis  Pinocytosis  Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
  28. 28. Types of Bulk Transport Phagocytosis – “cell eating” - Process by which cells take in large particles by infolding the cell membrane to form endocytotic vesicles Ex. WBC capture and kill invading bacteria
  29. 29. Types of Bulk Transport Pinocytosis – “cell drinking” - Process of taking in fluids into the cell by invagination of the cell membrane. Any solute or small particles in the fluid will be moved into the cell.
  30. 30. Types of Bulk TransportReceptor-mediated Endocytosis – “cell drinking”- Compared to pinocytosis, is very specific. The plasma membrane becomes indented and forms a pit. The pit lined with receptor proteins picks specific molecules from its surroundings. The pit will close and pinch off to form a vesicle which will carry the molecules inside the cytoplasm.
  31. 31. Types of Active Transport2. Exocytosis: Forces Endocytosis & Exocytosis material out of cell in animations bulk • membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membrane • Cell changes shape – requires energy • EX: Hormones or wastes released from cell
  32. 32. Effects of Osmosis on Life• Osmosis- diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane• Water is so small and there is so much of it the cell can’t control it’s movement through the cell membrane.
  33. 33. • Osmosis Animations for Hypotonic Solution isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsHypotonic: The solution has a lower concentration ofsolutes and a higher concentration of water thaninside the cell. (Low solute; High water)Result: Water moves from the solution to inside thecell): Cell Swells and bursts open (cytolysis)!
  34. 34. • Osmosis Animations for Hypertonic Solution isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsHypertonic: The solution has a higher concentrationof solutes and a lower concentration of water thaninside the cell. (High solute; Low water) shrinksResult: Water moves from inside the cell into thesolution: Cell shrinks (Plasmolysis)!
  35. 35. • Osmosis Animations for Isotonic Solution isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsIsotonic: The concentration of solutes in the solutionis equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell.Result: Water moves equally in both directions andthe cell remains same size! (Dynamic Equilibrium)
  36. 36. What type of solution are these cells in ? A B C Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic
  37. 37. How Organisms Deal • Paramecium (protist) removing excess water with Osmotic Pressure video•Bacteria and plants have cell walls that prevent themfrom over-expanding. In plants the pressure exerted onthe cell wall is called tugor pressure.•A protist like paramecium has contractile vacuoles thatcollect water flowing in and pump it out to prevent themfrom over-expanding.•Salt water fish pump salt out of their specialized gills sothey do not dehydrate.•Animal cells are bathed in blood. Kidneys keep theblood isotonic by remove excess salt and water.
  38. 38. This powerpoint was kindly donated towww.worldofteaching.comhttp://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over athousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is acompletely free site and requires no registration. Pleasevisit and I hope it will help in your teaching.

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