Biotechnology

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  • Allow me to discuss with you a field in science that provides viable options to further improve Philippine agriculture. This field is called Biotechnology
  • Why do we need to improve agriculture? In 20 years, world population is expected to increase by 25%. In 2020, there will be 122 M Filipinos. This means we will need more shelter, clothing and more food on the table.  
  • Current food production will not be enough to feed this population. For cereals alone, the Food and Agriculture Organization says that world production should increase to _(figure)_ by year 2020. The Philippines faces the same dilemma. We need to increase our rice production to 18 M tons or by 40%.
  • However, agricultural resources are fast becoming scarce because of deforestation, overgrazing, and land conversion to industrial and residential uses.
  • Thus, with the increasing demand for food coupled with the limiting resources, we need better and more efficient ways to produce food. Biotechnology is a viable alternative.
  • What is biotechnology? The word comes from two root words which we are very familiar with; bio which means life, and technology which refers to any technique or procedure that results to the development of new products.
  • The most accepted and common definition of biotechnology is: any technique that uses part of a living thing to make new products, improve or develop plants, animals and other organisms for specific use.
  • Biotechnology has been with us for a long time. Man has been using this technique to plants, animals and microorganisms to develop products. The ladder shows the different types of biotechnology activities in agriculture ranging from the traditional to more sophisticated techniques. Traditional biotechnology includes fermentation to produce common products such as vinegar, soy sauce and wine. Biopesticides, biofertilizers, tissue cultured plants, and diagnostic kits are products of traditional biotechnology.   Modern biotechnology, on the other hand, uses tools like genetic engineering to produce improved vaccines, organisms, plants and animals.
  • Aside from its applications in agriculture, biotechnology is also commonly used in medicine. Products available in the market are insulin for diabetes, interferon for treating cancer and Hepatitis B vaccine.  
  • How can biotechnology be applied to have a cleaner environment? Through biotechnology, microorganisms are used to degrade toxic wastes into harmless products.  
  • We are more familiar to biotechnology applications to agriculture. Let us discuss first food biotechnology. It is used to improve food quality and food processing to produce better tasting food, clearer juices and cleaner food.   Examples of this are the development of better tasting and higher quality food through the use of artificial flavorings, extenders and additional food ingredients such as omega-3 in tunas and vitamin A in noodles.
  • We are more familiar to biotechnology applications to agriculture. Let us discuss first food biotechnology. It is used to improve food quality and food processing to produce better tasting food, clearer juices and cleaner food.   Examples of this are the development of better tasting and higher quality food through the use of artificial flavorings, extenders and additional food ingredients such as omega-3 in tunas and vitamin A in noodles.
  • Through animal biotechnology, we now have improved livestock and poultry with leaner meat and higher milk production.
  • Another application of biotechnology in agriculture is the development of improved vegetables, fruits, fibers and cereals. For instance, through tissue culture are able to mass produce planting materials. Higher yielding and more resistant varieties are also made available.
  • More recently, a new generation of improved crops are developed through genetic engineering. Looking back at the scope of biotechnology, genetic engineering is part of its modern and sophisticated application. It is a technique that transfers a gene or genes of interest to develop and improve plants, animals and other organisms.
  • But what is a gene? It is the one responsible for the expression of a particular trait like the height of plants. That’s why there are short plants, and there are tall plants.
  • Through genetic engineering, the gene controlling the expression of a short plant can be transferred into a tall but high yielding plant. The resulting plant will now be a short type but with high yield. can now produce a flower with red and white-colored petals.
  • Now, what are genetically modified organisms or GMOs? These are products developed through genetic engineering and are also known as transgenic crops. Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt corn is an example of a GMO. It is a new type of corn with Bt gene that controls corn borer, a very destructive pest. Planting Bt corn results to higher yield, less exposure to and application of pesticides like Furadan, lower farm inputs, and cleaner grains. Thus Bt corn is a better option for our farmers.
  • The Philippines approved the commercial planting of Bt corn last year. Field testing of transgenic rice resistant to bacterial blight and corn resistant to the Asiatic corn borer is ongoing.
  • Also, there are green house experiments on papaya. Laboratory experiments are being done on mango, rice, banana, and coconut.
  • Biotechnology

    1. 1. Biotechnology
    2. 2. WORLDfrom 6.05 billion toabout 7.5 billion PHILIPPINES from 82 million to 122 million Sources: ADB, POPCOM
    3. 3. To feed this population... world cereal production should increase by 50% Philippine rice production should increase from 12 to 18 M tons (40%)
    4. 4. Agricultural resources are limited by ... • deforestation • overgrazing • land conversion Source: FAO
    5. 5. With increasing demand for food and limiting resources... we need better and more efficient ways to produce food one option is through Biotechnology
    6. 6. Bio - lifeTechnology - any technique or procedure to develop new products
    7. 7. Biotechnology - any technique that uses whole or part of a living thing to make new products, improve or develop plants, animals and other organisms for specific use
    8. 8. GE of animalsGE of animals GE of plants GE to improveGE to develop animalGE to develop animal microorganismsvaccinesvaccines Recombinant DNAGE of biocontrolGE of biocontrol for diseaseagents against plantagents against plant diagnosticspest & diseasespest & diseases Monoclonal antiPlant protoplastPlant protoplast body productionfusionfusion Plant tissue cultureEmbryo transferEmbryo transfer Fermentation, Biofertilizers
    9. 9. Insulin for diabetesInterferon for treatingcancerHepatitis B vaccine
    10. 10. Using living organismsto clean the environment
    11. 11. Food biotechnology Improved food quality and food processing Better tasting More nutritious Cleaner food
    12. 12. Animal biotechnology Better breeds of livestock and poultry • leaner meat •more milk Vaccines
    13. 13. Crops biotechnology Tissue cultured planting materials High yielding crops Varieties resistant to pests and diseases Diagnostic kits Improved postharvest qualities
    14. 14. Genetic engineering Technique that transfers gene(s) of interest to develop and improve plants, animals and other organisms
    15. 15. Gene - basic physical and functional units of heredity which carries information for the expression of a particular trait
    16. 16. Wild Relative Crop Plant Wild Relative Crop Plant Conventional Breeding Genetic Engineering
    17. 17. Conventional Breeding Genetic Engineering• limited to exchanges between • allows the direct transfer of the same or very closely one or just a few genes, related species between either closely or• little or no guarantee of distantly related organisms obtaining any particular gene • crop improvement can be combination from the millions achieved in a shorter time of crosses generated compared to conventional• undesirable genes can be breeding transferred along with desirable genes• take a long time to achieve desired results
    18. 18. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) = Transgenics Products developed through genetic engineering
    19. 19. Commercialization• Corn resistant to Asiatic cornborerField Test• Rice resistant to bacterial blight• Corn resistant to Asiatic cornborer
    20. 20. Organic agriculture and GMO’s• GM crops contribute to a reduction in fuel use due to less-frequent herbicide or insecticide applications and a reduction in the energy use in soil cultivation. Reduced soil cultivation is associated with herbicide tolerant crops.
    21. 21. Greenhouse • Papaya with delayed ripening trait • Papaya resistant to ringspot virusLaboratory • Mango with delayed ripening trait • Rice resistant to tungro virus • Vitamin A-enriched rice • Banana resistant to bunchy top disease • Coconut with higher amount of MCTs • Sweet potato resistant to feathery mottle virus
    22. 22. A Bt corn plantation in Iloilo
    23. 23. • Bt corn had no adverse effect on fungal micro flora and showed no insect damage. Under warm and dry environment that is highly favorable for aflatoxin production, Bt corn had reduced aflatoxin content as compared with it s non-Bt corn counterparts .
    24. 24. Coco sugar for diabetics
    25. 25. Rolando de la Cruz:Curing cancer with cashew nutsextract• “KAPAG tumunog ang gunting, pera na.” From shoeshine boy, dishwasher, barber to world-class inventor. This was the route taken by Rolando de la Cruz, the man who discovered a non- surgical treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer in the world. He is now the main man of RCC Amazing Touch, the company that markets a cream found to be efficacious in treating BCC.
    26. 26. Philippine Carabao Center pushes artificial breeding todevelop bigger water buffalos
    27. 27. Increase in dairy production alsoenvisioned Delicacies from carabao milk
    28. 28. A biodiesel plant of Chemrez Technologies
    29. 29. Malunggay: From power gulay to power diesel
    30. 30. Ateneo savant hopes to producebiofuel from algae
    31. 31. Gov’t battles Vitamin Adeficiency among kids
    32. 32. TOSCANA FARM (Tagaytay)

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