Properties of Expressionism• Focused on the symbolic, emotional and spiritual meaning of art• Artist’s inner world• Expressionism is a state of mind, not a style• Subjects appeared non-natural – Distorted figures – Irregular shapes• Often contained social commentary• Used bright color, dark lines, and bold shapes, to help convey message
Starry Night The Starry NightVincent Van Gogh (1889)
•Founded 1905, Dresden, Germany•Founders: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner,Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, and KarlSchmidt-Rottluff•Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, andOtto Mueller joined later
•Depicted psychological pressureof city life •Influenced by the poetry of Walt Whitman, Scandinavian and Russian literature •Often had erotic and morbid overtones•Very public with their ideas •They thought they were revolutionaries
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner • Studied architecture at the Dresden Technical College • Innovative woodcutting techiques
Street Life in Dancer with Raised SkirtDresden (1908) (1909-1910)Lithograph Woodcut
Winter Landscape by Moonlight Oil on Canvas (1919)
Emil Nolde • Studied art at the School of Applied Arts in Karlsruhe • Expressive colors and brushstrokes
Oskar Kokoshka • Austrian expressionist. • Mainly known for his portraits – distorted and allegorical. • Focused on portraying the psyche, mentally sick people.
The Bride of the WindOil on Canvas (1913-1914)
Demise of Expressionism• Die Brücke • Der Blaue Reiter – Kirchner and – Franz Marc and Pechstein attempted August Macke were to create a program to killed in combat during teach modern painting 1914. in art in 1911, failed in – Group disbanded 1912. shortly after. – Kirchner wrote Brücke Chronicle in 1913, which ended the group.
Demise of Expressionism• Post-Expressionism rose to prominence in 1925.• An announcement from the Kunstalle in Manneheim ended Expressionism in 1925.• Germany’s poor post-war economy and condemnation by the Nazis in the 1930s accelerated the decline, many artists fled after being labeled “degenerate artists.”