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English as an indo european language


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English as an indo european language

  1. 1. English as an Indo-European Language (Lexical Analysis) - Diego Ulloa Iglesias -
  2. 2. Language families similar features Lexicon (vocabulary) Syntax (Grammar) Phonology (sound) Morphology (word structure) contain of
  3. 3. English Indo-European Language family 140 languages 11 subgroups is part of and is divided in which contains
  4. 4. Approximate distribution of Indo- European languages around the world.
  5. 5. Subgroups of the PIE Anatolian Extinct languages Lydian Hittite Luwian are ↘ Absence of “classical” threeway gender system in sustantives. ↘ Existence of many laryngeals.
  6. 6. Subgroups of the PIE Indo-Aryan Indic Iranian Vedic Sanskrit Hindi-Urdu Marathi Punjabi Gujurati Kurdish Parthian Farsi Pashto Khotanese Yahgnobl Old Indic 1500-600 BCE Middle Indic 600-1000 CE Modern Indic 1000 CE West Iranian (Old Persian 600 BCE) East Iranian (Old Avestan 500 BCE)
  7. 7. Subgroups of the PIE Greek South East Greek North West Greek Attic-Ionic Arcado-Cyprian Mycenaean Aeolic Doric Greek literature Attic (main dialect) Iliad - Odyssey
  8. 8. Subgroups of the PIE Italic Latin-Faliscan Osco -Umbrian - Italian - French - Spanish - Catalan - Portuguese - Rumanian - Oscan (5th century BCE) - Umbrian (300 BCE) - South Picene (5th-6th century BCE) subdivided in Latin Represented by
  9. 9. Subgroups of the PIE Germanic geographicaly divided in East Germanic North Germanic West Germanic Gothic Icelandic Faroese Norwegian Danish Swedish German Yiddish Dutch Flemish Afrikaans English
  10. 10. Subgroups of the PIE Divided in (300 CE) Insular Celtic geographicaly divided in Continental Extinct languages (6th century BCE) - Celtiberian - Lepontic - Gaulish - Irish - Scots - Gaelic - Manx (extinct) Goidelic Brittanic - Welsh - Breton - Cornish (extinct)
  11. 11. Subgroups of the PIE Tocharian Tocharian A Tocharian B divided in (20th century) divided in (16th century) Baltic East Baltic Old Prussian (extinct) Lithuanian Latvian
  12. 12. Subgroups of the PIE South Slavic West Slavic East Slavic Slavic geographicaly divided in - Bulgarian - Macedonian - Serbian - Croatian - Slovenian - Old Church Slavic (extinct) - Czech - Slovak - Polish - Kashubian - Russian - Ukrainian - Belarussian
  13. 13. Armenian Albanian influenced by 5th century CE Greek – Arabian – Syriac – Persian Subgroups of the PIE Greek – Slavic – Turkish – Latin influenced by 15th century CE main dialects Gheg – Tosk
  14. 14. Fragmentary Languages survive only in Glosses and sporadic inscriptions Ligurian (Northern Italy) Messapic (Southern Italy) Venetic (Northeastern Italy) Thracian (Southern Romania & Modern Bulgaria’s area) Phrygian (Modern central Turkey’s area) Illyrian (Dalmatian coast area of Adriatic) Main fragmentary languages
  15. 15. Aspects of PIE structure. Phonology. PIE Hitt. Skr. Lat. Gk. Goth. Olc. OHG OE p p p p p f f f f k k ś k k h(j) h h h b p b b b p p p/pf p w/u w v v ø w v w w y/i y y j h/z j ø j g(y) a a a a a a a a æ Phonological correpondences between consonant and vowel segments.
  16. 16. Aspects of PIE structure. Morphology. Inflectional (fusional) language 8 cases 3 numbers 3 genders Adjectives Nominative, genitive, dative, acusative, ablative, locative, instrumental, vocative. Singular Dual Plural Masculine Femenine Neuter Each depends on gender and number. Each is marked by their own more-or-less unique ending. Pronouns 1. Nominal & pronominal morphology.
  17. 17. Aspects of PIE structure. Morphology. 2. Verbal morphology. Verbs TenseVoice Mood - Active - Mediopassive - Present - Imperfect - Aorist - Perfect - Future - Imperative - Indicative - Optative - Subjunctive Transitive Intransitive divided in 2 types
  18. 18. Syntax. Aspects of PIE structure. Fusional languages Different syntactic patterns Word order have due to a).- With him Sarah plays. b).- Him plays with Sarah. c).- Sarah plays with him. d).- Plays him with Sarah. Yes! You’re right!