Access to Information and InformationOverload in Teaching and Research in  Chemistry – A Faculty perspective              ...
Presentation Outline• Research objectives• Research highlights• Access to information and information overload in chemistr...
Research ObjectivesUnderstand atomic and molecular assemblies at surfaces and developways to control their structure and m...
Solar cell diagram based on sensitization conceptProf. Grätzel group was the first to build a photo-voltaic cell using Ru(...
Preparation and characterization of TiO2                     films                                       Cross section    ...
Photosensitizer Dye MoleculesTerpyridine                                                DipyrazinylpyridineDyes           ...
Incorporation of nanoparticles in solar cell devices Why nanoparticles? By reducing the size of semiconductor crystals, qu...
Sensitization of TiO2 with CdSexS(1-x) ternary alloys semiconductors       Why are we changing the ratios?       a. To var...
Chemical bath deposition effect on the spectral absorption                of CdSexS(1-x) sensitizers                      ...
Photoelectrochemistry (PEC) of Sensitized Solar CellsTable 1. PEC of TiO2 films sensitized with different CdSexS(1-x) comp...
Challenges• Each component of these devices depends on the others• Each study requires a large amount of chemical and phys...
Access to information and information overload in solar cellresearch• Information overload and competitivenessObservations...
Number of research articles published per year obtained froma simple and limited literature search using the keywords “dye...
Reality• Only the limited number of publications are cited heavily and  they usually originate from very high impact journ...
Access to information and information overload in chemistry• New funding reality – exploring unknown territoriesObservatio...
Number of patent families published per year obtained froma simple and limited literature search using the keywords “dye-s...
Access to information and information overload in chemistry• Impact on teaching and trainingObservations:• New students ar...
Keeping up with large amount of published data is not always aproblem• Growth and characterization of thin bismuth filmsEl...
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy - STM Conventional STM         Video STMConstant current mode   Constant height mode       ...
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy –bismuth deposition at -80 mV on Au(111)  after 5min at – 80 mV                   10min     ...
Video-STM    STM with high time resolution     • “fast” dynamic processes    • One group has successfully build    such a...
Needle Structure                                             Needle structure model                                       ...
Kink Motion                                                    Single kink model                                          ...
Thank You!Missing: Dr. Ashur Aushana and Erwin Lin.NSERC, CRC program and York UniversitySEM analysis: Karen Rethoret (Yor...
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University of Toronto Chemistry Librarians Workshop June 2012

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University of Toronto Chemistry Librarians Workshop June 2012

  1. 1. Access to Information and InformationOverload in Teaching and Research in Chemistry – A Faculty perspective Sylvie Morin Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, ON 1
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Research objectives• Research highlights• Access to information and information overload in chemistry • Information overload and competitiveness • New funding reality – exploring unknown territories 2
  3. 3. Research ObjectivesUnderstand atomic and molecular assemblies at surfaces and developways to control their structure and morphology using chemistry,interfacial properties and electrochemistry.Study the performance of these atomic layers and molecularassemblies in applications such as electrocatalysis, sensors, solarenergy conversion, bio- nano- materials.Relate a particular property to the layer’s structural, chemical,electronic and/or electrochemical attributes. 3
  4. 4. Solar cell diagram based on sensitization conceptProf. Grätzel group was the first to build a photo-voltaic cell using Ru(II) complexes as catalysts more 4than 20 years ago.
  5. 5. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 films Cross section SEM Image of of TiO2 film Cross section of TiO2 filmSEM Image of SEM Image ofTiO22film TiO filmfrom Top (top view) TiO2 layer Conductive SnO2 layer Glass substrate 5
  6. 6. Photosensitizer Dye MoleculesTerpyridine DipyrazinylpyridineDyes Dyes RuA2(PF6)2 RuC2(PF6)2Ru(eA)2(PF6)2 Ru(eC)2(PF6)2 RuB2(PF6)2 RuD2(PF6)2Ru(eB)2(PF6)2 Ru(eD)2(PF6)2 6 N3
  7. 7. Incorporation of nanoparticles in solar cell devices Why nanoparticles? By reducing the size of semiconductor crystals, quantum-size effect alters energy levels of these crystals. 1. Continuous bands break into discrete energy levels. 2. Size of the gap increases. V.I. Klimov, Los Alamos Science (2003) 28, 214-220. 7
  8. 8. Sensitization of TiO2 with CdSexS(1-x) ternary alloys semiconductors Why are we changing the ratios? a. To vary the band gap and hence the excited state energy of the sensitizer. b. We may sensitize TiO2 with different semiconductor compositions having various absorption spectra, so they may show different light harvesting efficiencies. For the deposition of thin films of the Blue Shift ternary alloys: Red Shift 8R.C. Kainthla et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. (1982) 129, 99-102.
  9. 9. Chemical bath deposition effect on the spectral absorption of CdSexS(1-x) sensitizers NH3 bath NTA bath 9
  10. 10. Photoelectrochemistry (PEC) of Sensitized Solar CellsTable 1. PEC of TiO2 films sensitized with different CdSexS(1-x) compositions. The films are sensitizedin a chemical bath based on NTA as complexing agent. Voc (mV) Jsc (mA/cm2) ff (%) Efficiency (%) CdS -325 1.32 33.4 0.14 CdSe0.25S0.75 -518 9.06 32.8 1.54 CdSe0.5S0.5 -535 9.97 31.8 1.70 CdSe0.75S0.25 -502 9.47 31.7 1.51 CdSe0.95S0.05 -477 4.98 36.1 0.86 CdSe -453 3.79 44.8 0.77 10
  11. 11. Challenges• Each component of these devices depends on the others• Each study requires a large amount of chemical and physical characterization• Sensitizers – redox couple – additives need to be optimized each time something is changed in the cell• Field is evolving fast 11
  12. 12. Access to information and information overload in solar cellresearch• Information overload and competitivenessObservations:Number of publishing media has increasedNumber of research publications has also increased – boomingeconomies such as China and India have strong researchprogramsFunding is limited and often targets narrower fields of research– e.g. solar energy – fuel cells – CO2 reduction 12
  13. 13. Number of research articles published per year obtained froma simple and limited literature search using the keywords “dye-sensitized”and “solar” (data source, ISI Web of Knowledge). 13 A. Hagfeldt et al. Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 6595–6663
  14. 14. Reality• Only the limited number of publications are cited heavily and they usually originate from very high impact journals.• Unrealistic to follow all this literature – considering that this is only one of many areas of investigation in my group• It becomes very hard to publish in these areas due to large number of papers being submitted every year – limited number of specialized journal and referees• Some specialized journals are not readily available in our library and there is a lack of skills in data mining 14
  15. 15. Access to information and information overload in chemistry• New funding reality – exploring unknown territoriesObservations:Strong lobbying from industry for Canadian Research to bemore applied – decrease funding in fundamental research – newprograms target partnership with industryResearchers need to have entrepreneurial skills and take theirideas to the next level. MITACS programs, NSERC I2I,NSERC Engage, start-up companies.Researchers are now required to be comfortable with searchingpatent literature and writing confidentiality agreements! 15
  16. 16. Number of patent families published per year obtained froma simple and limited literature search using the keywords “dye-sensitized”and “solar” (data source, esp@cenet). 16 A. Hagfeldt et al. Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 6595–6663
  17. 17. Access to information and information overload in chemistry• Impact on teaching and trainingObservations:• New students are inexperienced with basic library searches (UG and G)• Students rely heavily on web-sites such as Wikipedia and search engines such as Google (UG)• Need basic skills to limit number of “hits” using appropriate search engines otherwise students are overwhelmed (G)• Basic data mining skills will most likely be required in their future employment (UG and G) 17
  18. 18. Keeping up with large amount of published data is not always aproblem• Growth and characterization of thin bismuth filmsElectrodeposition process is rather simple:Bi3+(aq) + 3 e- Bio(s)But the resulting film structure and morphology will depend strongly onthermodynamic and kinetic effects. Adapted from: E. Budevski,et al. “Electrochemical Phase Formation and growth”, VCH, 1996. 18
  19. 19. Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy - STM Conventional STM Video STMConstant current mode Constant height mode Fast scan (10~20Hz) is achieved in solution! 19
  20. 20. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy –bismuth deposition at -80 mV on Au(111) after 5min at – 80 mV 10min 15min a) b) c) 150 nm 150 nm 150 nm20min 25min d) e) - Early stages: formation of mono- and bi-layer islands. - Two growth modes: step-flow and needle growth. - Bi layer height: ca. 3.6 ± 0.1 Å. - Needles have characteristic 90 nm 90 nm orientations where 120º and 60º Figure 5: In-situ STM images recorded at -80 mV (a-e), Ebias = 60 mV, It = 0.2 angles are predominant. nA. Arrows = scan direction.8. Susan H. Zheng, “Studies of Bismuth Electrodeposition on Au(111) by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction”, MSc Thesis,York University (2005)
  21. 21. Video-STM STM with high time resolution  • “fast” dynamic processes • One group has successfully build such a STM for studies in solutions Constant height mode 5 ~ 30 images/sL. Zitzler, et al., Proc. Electrochem. Soc., 99-28 (2000) 29-38. 21
  22. 22. Needle Structure Needle structure model Bi atom Short bond (46.2 x 46.2Å) Long bond Video-STM images (10Hz) of Bi needle structure deposited in 1 mM Bi3+ at -59 •Stabilized needle step by short bond mV vs. SCE. •Dynamic fluctuation at needle tip 22
  23. 23. Kink Motion Single kink model Type A Type B Type C (41 x 41 Å)Video-STM images (10Hz) of Bi needlestructure deposited in 1 mM Bi3+ at -229mV vs. SCE. 23
  24. 24. Thank You!Missing: Dr. Ashur Aushana and Erwin Lin.NSERC, CRC program and York UniversitySEM analysis: Karen Rethoret (York)E-mail: smorin@yorku.ca 24

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