METHODS IN HISTORY   Based on Brown, 2001
METHODS IN HISTORY         Based on Brown, 2001Search for methods                           Edward Anthony            Appr...
Methods in history                    Based on Brown, 2001  Grammar  Translation  Method       Series Method       Direct ...
1970   1980   1990   2000   2010
1970                  1980                1990                2000                  2010MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT – BRIAN TOML...
FORM         In print          Live performance/          displayFORMAT         Cassette / CD         CD ROM         DVD  ...
Materials development – Brian Tomlinson                                                                          Professio...
Materials development – Brian Tomlinson     Do learners need a     coursebook?  most convenient form                      ...
What do teachers believeabout textbook use andtextbook choice?What sourcesfeed teachers’beliefs on thesequestions?
Model for PromotionalActivity in the                                 Laboratory                                           ...
Model for PromotionalActivity in the ELT                                          Fill in thePublishing Industry          ...
Penny Ur    Importance                                                               Criterion                            ...
Penny Ur                    Importance                            CriterionVery important         Fairly important      ...
Jeremy Harmer     Harmer, J. (1998). How to teach English. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman. Pages 1187 – 119     Area       ...
Jeremy Harmer       Area  1 price  2 availability         1. Analysis  3 layout and  design                         2. Pil...
Douglas H. Brown            Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142   ...
Douglas H. Brown       Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142Table 9....
Douglas H. Brown        Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142Table 9...
Alan Cunningsworth         Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.1.- Approaches to evaluati...
Alan Cunningsworth                    Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.Aims and approa...
Alan Cunningsworth                      Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.- Are all fou...
Alan Cunningsworth                   Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann. Teachers books ...
Harmer                Brown                   Cunningsworth1. Price               1. Goals                     1. Aims and...
Penny UrImportance                                       Criterion             Objectives explicitly laid out in an introd...
Textbook choice: criteria        Intrinsic factors    Status       Performance       Description    Continuity         ...
Textbook choice: criteria       Intrinsic factors    Status      Performance                           IV      Descripti...
Textbook choice: criteria        Intrinsic factors    Status       Performance                            IV       Descr...
Textbook choice: criteria        Intrinsic factors    Status       Performance                                  2013   20...
Intrinsic factors    Status                  IV       Performance         III                            II       Descri...
The truth about your textbook
The truth about your textbook
The truth about your textbook
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The truth about your textbook

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Some critical points on ELT textbook choice

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The truth about your textbook

  1. 1. METHODS IN HISTORY Based on Brown, 2001
  2. 2. METHODS IN HISTORY Based on Brown, 2001Search for methods Edward Anthony Approach Method Technique
  3. 3. Methods in history Based on Brown, 2001 Grammar Translation Method Series Method Direct Method Audiolingual The Method (ALM) “Designer” Methods 1.- Community Language Learning (CLL) 2.- Suggestopedia 3.- The Silent Way 4.- Total Physical Response (TPR) 5.- The Natural Approach
  4. 4. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  5. 5. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT – BRIAN TOMLINSON field of academic study practical principles undertaking procedures •Design •Production Language •Writing •Evaluation •Implementation Teaching •Adaptation •Evaluation Materials •DeliveryTaken from Tomlinson in Carter and Nunan, (2005) The Cambridge Guide to TESOL CUP
  6. 6. FORM In print Live performance/ displayFORMAT Cassette / CD CD ROM DVD Internet Instructional information Experiential exposure Elicitative stimulus Exploratory discoveries
  7. 7. Materials development – Brian Tomlinson Professional Professional development development monitored experience of the Understanding process of developing and application materials of theoriesTaken from Tomlinson in Carter and Nunan, (2005) The Cambridge Guide to TESOL CUP
  8. 8. Materials development – Brian Tomlinson Do learners need a coursebook? most convenient form Superficial and reductionist in: consistency continuation Coverage sense of system Experience cohesion and progress Imposes uniformity helps Ts to prepare Removes Ts power and initiative helps Ss to reviseTaken from Tomlinson in Carter and Nunan, (2005) The Cambridge Guide to TESOL CUP
  9. 9. What do teachers believeabout textbook use andtextbook choice?What sourcesfeed teachers’beliefs on thesequestions?
  10. 10. Model for PromotionalActivity in the Laboratory promotersPharmaceutical Visitador influenceIndustry médico professionals Pharmacy Physician Patient By prescribing medicines, By believeing in prescriptions, patie professionals nts buy as directed. influence purchase decisions
  11. 11. Model for PromotionalActivity in the ELT Fill in thePublishing Industry Publisher blanks… Bookshop Teacher Parent Fill in the Fill in the blanks… blanks…
  12. 12. Penny Ur Importance Criterion Objectives explicitly laid out in an introduction, and implemented in the material. Approach educationally and socially acceptable to target community Clear attractive layout; print easy to read. Appropriate visual materials available Interesting topics and tasks. Varied topics and tasks, so as to provide for different learner levels, learning styles, interests, etc. Clear instructions Systematic coverage of syllabus Content clearly organized and graded (sequenced by difficulty). Periodic review and test sections Plenty of authentic language Good pronunciation explanation and practice Good vocabulary explanation and practice Good grammar presentation and practice Fluency practice in all four skills. Encourages learners to develop own learning strategies and to become independent in their learning Adequate guidance for the teacher; not too heavy preparation load. Audio cassettes/CDs Readily available locally.Ur, Penny (1991). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Pages 185 - 186
  13. 13. Penny Ur Importance CriterionVery important Fairly important  Objectives explicitly laid out in an Not sure ? introduction, and implemented in the material. Not important X Totally unimportant XX Ur, Penny (1991). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Pages 185 - 18
  14. 14. Jeremy Harmer Harmer, J. (1998). How to teach English. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman. Pages 1187 – 119 Area Questions to consider How expensive is the textbook? Can the students afford it? Will they have to buy an1 price accompanying workbook? Can they afford both? What about the teacher; can he or she pay for the teachers book and tapes? Is the course available? Are all its components (students book, teachers book, workbook2 availability etc.) in the shops now? What about the next level (for the next term/semester)? Has it been published? Is it available? What about tapes, videos etc.? Is the book attractive? Does the teacher feel comfortable with it?3 layout and Do the students like it? How user-friendly is the design? Does it get in the way ofdesign what the book is trying to do or does it enhance it? What kind of teaching and learning does the book promote? Can teachers and students build4 methodology appropriate ESA sequences from it? Is there a good balance between Study and Activation? Does the book cover the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) adequately? Is there a decent balance between the skills? Are there opportunities for both Study and5 skills Activation in the skills work? Is the language of the reading and listening texts appropriate? Are the speaking and writing tasks likely to Engage the students interest? Is the syllabus of the book appropriate for your students? Does it cover the language points6 syllabus you would expect? Are they in the right order? Do the reading and listening texts increase in difficulty as the book progresses? Does the book contain a variety of topics? Are they likely to engage the students interest?7 topic Does the teacher respond to them well? Are they culturally appropriate for the students? Are they too adult or too childish? Does the book represent people and situations in a fair and equal way? Are various8 stereotyping categories of people treated equally? Is there stereotyping of certain nationalities? Does the book display conscious or unconscious racism or sexism? Is there a good teachers guide? Is it easy to use? Does it have all the answers the teacher9 teachers might need? Does it offer alternatives to lesson procedures? Does it contain a statement ofguide intention which the teacher and students feel happy with?
  15. 15. Jeremy Harmer Area 1 price 2 availability 1. Analysis 3 layout and design 2. Piloting 4 methodology 3. Consultation 5 skills 4. Gathering opinions 6 syllabus 7 topic 8 stereotyping 9 teachers guideHarmer, J. (1998). How to teach English. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman. Pages 1187 – 119
  16. 16. Douglas H. Brown Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142 Table 9.2. Textbook evaluation criteria (adapted from Robinett 1978: 249-51) 1. Goals of the course (Will this textbook help to accomplish your course goals?) 2. Background of the students (Does the book fit the students background?) a. age c. educational background b. native language and culture d. motivation or purpose for learning English 3. Approach (Does the theoretical approach reflected in the book reflect a philosophy that you and your institution and your students can easily identify with?) a. theory of learning b. theory of language 4. Language skills (Does the book intégrate the "four skills"? Is there a balanced approach toward the skills? Does the textbook emphasize skills which the curriculum also emphasizes?) a. listening c. reading b. speaking d. writing 5. General content (Does the book reflect what is now known about language and language learning?) a. validity—does the textbook accomplish what it purports to? b. authenticity of language c. appropriateness and currency of topics, situations, and contexts d. proficiency level—is it pitched for the right level? 6. Quality of practice material a. exercises—is there a variety from controlled to free? b. clarity of directions—are they clear to both students and teacher? c. active participation of students—is this encouraged effectively? d. grammatical and other linguistic explanation—inductive or deductive? e. review material—are there sufficient spiraling and review exercises? 7. Sequencing (How is the book sequenced?) a. by grammatical structures c. by situations b. by skills d. by some combination of the above 8. Vocabulary (Does the book pay sufficient attention to words and word study?) a. relevance c. strategies for word analysis b. frequency 9. General sociolinguistic factors a. variety of English—American, British, dialects, or international varieties b. cultural content—is there a cultural bias? 10. Format (Is the book attractive, usable, and durable?) a. clarity of typesetting b. use of special notation (phonetic symbols, stress/intonation marking, etc.) c. quality and clarity of illustrations d. general layout—is it comfortable and not too "busy"? e. size of the book and binding f. quality of editing g. Index, table of contents, chapter headings 11. Accompanying materials (Are there useful supplementary materials?) a. workbook c. posters, flash cards, etc. b. tapes—audio and/or video d. a set of tests 12. Teachers guide (Is it useful?) a. methodological guidance c. suitability for nonnative speaking teacher b. alternative and supplementary d. answer keys exercises
  17. 17. Douglas H. Brown Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142Table 9.2. Textbook evaluation criteria (adapted from Robinett 1978: 249-51)1. Goals of the course (Will this textbook help to accomplish your course goals?)2. Background of the students (Does the book fit the students background?) a. age c. educational background b. native language and culture d. motivation or purpose for learning English3. Approach (Does the theoretical approach reflected in the book reflect a philosophy that you and your institution and your students can easily identify with?) a. theory of learning b. theory of language4. Language skills (Does the book integrate the "four skills"? Is there a balanced approach towardthe skills? Does the textbook emphasize skills which the curriculum also emphasizes?) a. listening c. reading b. speaking d. writing5. General content (Does the book reflect what is now known about language and languagelearning?) a. validity—does the textbook accomplish what it purports to? b. authenticity of language c. appropriateness and currency of topics, situations, and contexts d. proficiency level—is it pitched for the right level?6. Quality of practice material a. exercises—is there a variety from controlled to free? b. clarity of directions—are they clear to both students and teacher? c. active participation of students—is this encouraged effectively? d. grammatical and other linguistic explanation—inductive or deductive? e. review material—are there sufficient spiraling and review exercises?
  18. 18. Douglas H. Brown Brown, Douglas H. (2001) Teaching by Principles. New York. Addison Wesley Longman. Page 142Table 9.2. Textbook evaluation criteria (adapted from Robinett 1978: 249-51)7. Sequencing (How is the book sequenced?) a. by grammatical structures c. by situations b. by skills d. by some combination of the above8. Vocabulary (Does the book pay sufficient attention to words and word study?) a. relevance c. strategies for word analysis b. frequency9. General sociolinguistic factors a. variety of English—American, British, dialects, or international varieties b. cultural content—is there a cultural bias?10. Format (Is the book attractive, usable, and durable?) a. clarity of typesetting b. use of special notation (phonetic symbols, stress/intonation marking, etc.) c. quality and clarity of illustrations d. general layout—is it comfortable and not too "busy"? e. size of the book and binding f. quality of editing g. Index, table of contents, chapter headings11. Accompanying materials (Are there useful supplementary materials?) a. workbook c. posters, flash cards, etc. b. tapes—audio and/or video d. a set of tests12. Teachers guide (Is it useful?) a. methodological guidance c. suitability for nonnative speaking teacher b. alternative and supplementary d. answer keys exercises
  19. 19. Alan Cunningsworth Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.1.- Approaches to evaluation Impressionistic overview v/s In - depth evaluation“Selecting coursebooks involves matching the material against the contextin which it is going to be used” 2.- Deciding on a checklist
  20. 20. Alan Cunningsworth Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.Aims and approaches- Do the aims of the coursebook correspond closely with the aims of the teaching programme and with theneeds of the learners?- Is the coursebook suited to the learning/teaching situation?- How comprehensive is the coursebook? Does it cover most or all of what is needed? Is it a good resource forstudents and teachers?- Is the coursebook flexible? Does it allow different teaching and learning styles?nization- What components make up the total course package (eg students books, teachers books, workbooks,cassettes, etc)?- How is the content organized (eg according to structures, functions, topics, skills, etc)? Is the organization rightfor learners and teachers?- How is the content sequenced (eg on the basis of complexity, learnability, usefulness, etc)?- Is the grading and progression suitable for the learners? Does it allow them to complete the work needed tomeet any external syllabus requirements?- Is there adequate recycling and revision?- Are there reference sections for grammar, etc? Is some of the material suitable for individual study?- Is it easy to find your way around the coursebook? Is the layout clear?ntent- Does the coursebook cover the main grammar items appropriate to each level, taking learners needs intoaccount?- Is material for vocabulary teaching adequate in terms of quantity and range of vocabulary, emphasis placed onvocabulary development, strategies for individual learning?- Does the coursebook include material for pronunciation work? If so what is covered: individual sounds, wordstress, sentence stress, intonation?- Does the coursebook deal with the structuring and conventions of language use above sentence level, eg howto take part in conversations, how to structure a piece of extended writing, how to identify the main points in areading passage? (More relevant at intermediate and advanced levels.)
  21. 21. Alan Cunningsworth Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann.- Are all four skills adequately covered, bearing in mind your course aims and syllabus requirements?- Is there material for integrated skills work?-Are reading passages and associated activities suitable for your students levels, interests, etc? Is there sufficientreading material?- Is listening material well recorded, as authentic as possible, accompanied by background information, questions andactivities which help comprehension?- Is material for spoken English (dialogues, roleplays, etc) well designed to equip learners for real-life interactions?- Are writing activities suitable in terms of amount of guidance/control, degree of accuracy, organization of longer piecesof writing (eg paragraphing) and use of appropriate styles?- Is there sufficient material of genuine interest to learners?- Is there enough variety and range of topic?- Will the topics help expand students awareness and enrich their experience?- Are the topics sophisticated enough in content, yet within the learners language level?- Will your students be able to relate to the social and cultural contexts presented in the coursebook?- Are women portrayed and represented equally with men?- Are other groups represented, with reference to ethnic origin, occupation, disability, etc?- What approach/approaches to language learning are taken by the coursebook? Is this appropriate to thelearning/teaching situation?- What level of active learner involvement can be expected? Does this match your students learning styles andexpectations?- What techniques are used for presenting/practising new language items? Are they suitable for your learners?- How are the different skills taught?- How are communicative abilities developed?- Does the material include any advice/help to students on study skills and learning strategies?- Are students expected to take a degree of responsibility for their own learning (eg by setting their own individuallearning targets)?
  22. 22. Alan Cunningsworth Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your coursebook. Oxford. Heinemann. Teachers books - Is there adequate guidance for the teachers who will be using the coursebook and its supporting materials? - Are the teachers books comprehensive and supportive? - Do they adequately cover teaching techniques, language items such as grammar rules and culture- specific information? - Do the writers set out and justify the basic premises and principles underlying the material? - Are keys to exercises given? Practical Considerations - What does the whole package cost? Does this represent good value for money? - Are the books strong and long-lasting? Are they attractive in appearance? - Are they easy to obtain? Can further supplies be obtained at short notice? - Do any parts of the package require particular equipment, such as a language laboratory, listening centre or video player? If so, do you have the equipment available for use and is it reliable?
  23. 23. Harmer Brown Cunningsworth1. Price 1. Goals 1. Aims and approaches2. Availability 2. Background of the students2. Design and organization3. Layout and design 3. Approach 3. Language content4. Methodology 4. Language skills 4. Skills5. Skills 5. General content 5. Topic6. Syllabus 6. Quality of practice material 6. Methodology7. Topic 7. Sequencing 7. Teacher’s book8. Stereotyping 8. Vocabulary 8. Practical considerations9. Teacher’s guide 9. General sociolinguistic factors 10. Format 11. Accompanying material 12. Teacher’s guide
  24. 24. Penny UrImportance Criterion Objectives explicitly laid out in an introduction, and implemented in the material.  Approach educationally and socially acceptable to target community  Clear attractive layout; print easy to read.  Appropriate visual materials available  Interesting topics and tasks.  Varied topics and tasks, so as to provide for different learner levels, learning  styles, interests, etc. Clear instructions  Systematic coverage of syllabus  Content clearly organized and graded (sequenced by difficulty).  Periodic review and test sections  Plenty of authentic language x Good pronunciation explanation and practice ? Good vocabulary explanation and practice  Good grammar presentation and practice  Fluency practice in all four skills.  Encourages learners to develop own learning strategies and to become  independent in their learning Adequate guidance for the teacher; not too heavy preparation load.  Audio cassettes/CDs  Readily available locally. 
  25. 25. Textbook choice: criteria Intrinsic factors Status Performance Description Continuity  Length  Progression  Transition Articulation  Achievement  Appropriateness  Coherence
  26. 26. Textbook choice: criteria Intrinsic factors Status Performance IV Description III II I 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Beginner Elementary Pre – Int. Intermediate Upper – Int. Advanced
  27. 27. Textbook choice: criteria Intrinsic factors Status Performance IV Description IIIContinuity II Length I  8  Progression 7  Transition 6 5 4 3 2 1 Beginner Elementary Pre – Int. Intermediate Upper – Int. Advanced
  28. 28. Textbook choice: criteria Intrinsic factors Status Performance 2013 2014 20135 2016 2017 2018 Description 1Continuity 2 Length 3  4  Progression 5  Transition 6 7Articulation 8  Achievement I  Appropriateness II  Coherence III IV
  29. 29. Intrinsic factors Status IV Performance III II Description 8 IContinuity 7 6 5 Length 4  3 2  Progression 1 Beginner Elementary Pre – Int. Intermediate Upper – Int. Advanced  Transition 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 1Articulation 2 3 Achievement 4  5 6  Appropriateness 7 8  Coherence I II III IV

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