Increasing profitability with Green
Chemistry
Nitesh H. Mehta
Green ChemisTree Foundation
Mumbai, India
www.industrialgree...
 Realities of Chemical Industry – Past, Present & Future
 Magnitude of environmental challenge & its impact
 Approaches...
• Population Explosion
• Last two decades, nature of expansion:
 mostly linear expansion of volumes
 linear expansion of...
In the last two decades, direction of innovation:
 enhancing productivity & better material handling
 enhancing quality
...
 Probable Future
 Environmental Norms – more stringent, more regulatory pressure
 Common man’s awareness about their ri...
Magnitude of environmental challenge
Industry
Sector
Producti
on (bn
kg)
No. of
Steps
E-Factor
(Ref: R.
Sheldon)
Aqueous
E...
Impact: huge threat to water bodies & human health
 Quantity : approx. 50 - 70 bn kgs of liquid effluents
include solid &...
Approaches to deal with environmental challenges
What is Green Chemistry?
 a science
 a philosophy
 an attitude
 a new domain or branch of chemistry
 “greener” way of...
Definition of Green Chemistry:
Chemistry & chemical engineering to design chemical products & processes that
reduce or eli...
12 Principles of Green Chemistry
 Prevent waste
 Design safer chemicals and products
 Design less hazardous chemical sy...
Some common myths about Green Chemistry:
 Its expensive, not worth it
 it is theory, doesn’t work in real life
 it take...
Where to start from? Basis of selection?
 Green Chemistry Metrices: may start with effluent stream with highest
E-Factor,...
Short term
e.g. Immediate, workable solution
(reduce COD or reduce
effluent
load by recycling)
Medium term
e.g. Process In...
Short term
Time : 1 to 2 years
Resources: very low
Risk: very low
Medium term
Time: 2 to 4 years
Resources : low to medium...
Case Study 1:
 Developed & commercialized by Newreka Team
 Running successfully as commercial scale at a Pharma Company ...
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Step 1
2 - 3 Raw Materials
Reaction Medium
Extraction Medium
Intermediate/Product
Effluents
Re...
Reality of our processes
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
4 - 5 different
chemicals
4 - 5 different
chemicals
4 - 5 different
c...
Manufacturing Site
Reality of our plants
Mfg. Block for
Campaign
Products
Mfg. Block for
Dedicated
Products
Dedicated
Prod...
 Each effluent stream has its own:
• Physical properties
• colour, pH, temperature
• Chemical composition
• organics, ino...
Current industrial practice
Effluent stream from
dedicated products
Effluent stream
from product 1
Effluent stream
from pr...
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
2 - 3 Raw Materials
Reaction Medium
Extraction Medium
Finished Product
EffluentsStep 1
Reactio...
AQUEOUS EFFLEUNT STREAMS SOLVENT STREAMS
(acidic, neutral, alkaline)
Raw Finished Organic
Inorganic
Materials Product Impu...
Conventional Technology: High pressure catalytic hydrogenation with Raney Ni
Chemistry: Nitro to Amine Reduction
Recycle@S...
Feedback from customer: Recycling mother liquor for over 3 years now.
Over 800 batches (at times on campaign basis)
Just m...
Impact:
• Increase in profitability:
1. Yield improved by 10%
2. Batch Times reduced – 20% Higher productivity
3. Two solv...
H – Acid (1-Amino-3-Hydroxy Naphthalene 3,6 Disulphonic Acid):
 One of the oldest & biggest volume Dye Intermediates (goe...
Fusion &
Evaporation
Isolation
Vessel
CENTRIFUGE
Amine
Methanol
Caustic
Acidic Mother Liquor
H-Acid
Representative diagram...
Fusion &
Evaporation
Isolation
Vessel
CENTRIFUGE
Amine
Methanol
Caustic
Acidic Mother Liquor
Storage
Vessel
Mother Liquor ...
Batch No.
Product
Colour
Product
Appearance
H-Acid
Obtained (gm)
Product
Purity
Fresh
Off white to
Light Pink
Powder 59 > ...
In the face of challenges that chemical industries face today, like:
market competition, further shrinking of already “thi...
Impact of Recycle@SourceTM
Solutions that are ready with Newreka:
Total Impact on environment : effluent discharge to envi...
 Inertia to New Paradigm against the gravity of existing paradigm
 Technical Barriers: no ecosystem for knowledge-based ...
 Human Barriers
 inertia to change from old paradigm to New Paradigm
 decades of shop-floor experience becomes barrier ...
 The question now, is no longer – Whether Green Chemistry or not?
The question now is – How can we develop & implement Gr...
Magnitude of
Environment
Challenges
Magnitude of
Environment
Challenges
ScaleScale
UrgencyUrgency
??
?
?
??
Green Chemistr...
Universities:
1. Limitations to
Customize, Scale-up &
Commercialize
2. Limitations to Market
their Innovations
Industry:
1...
Universities:
1. Limitations to
Customize, Scale-up &
Commercialize
2. Limitations to Market
their Innovations
Industry:
1...
MNC or Large or Small Organization: Partner with us & express your commitment
to Sustainability by being a Sponsor & share...
Thank you
For resources on Green Chemistry Please visit
& Green Engineering: www.industrialgreenchem.com
Increasing profitability with green chemistry (chemspec asia'14, bangkok)
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Increasing profitability with green chemistry (chemspec asia'14, bangkok)

  1. 1. Increasing profitability with Green Chemistry Nitesh H. Mehta Green ChemisTree Foundation Mumbai, India www.industrialgreenchem.com nitesh.mehta@newreka.co.in
  2. 2.  Realities of Chemical Industry – Past, Present & Future  Magnitude of environmental challenge & its impact  Approaches to address our environmental challenges  Distinguishing “Green Chemistry”  Strategies to implement Green Chemistry  Increasing Profitability with Green Chemistry: Case Study of Recycle@SourceTM Solution  Potential Impact of a Green Chemistry Solution  Barriers to implement Green Chemistry  Conclusions Flow
  3. 3. • Population Explosion • Last two decades, nature of expansion:  mostly linear expansion of volumes  linear expansion of hardware  linear expansion of batch size  linear expansion of labour  linear expansion of effluent treatment facilities • Developing countries like India, China, etc – outsourcing hub for manufacturing activities & hence environmental load on us is higher Increase in Demand Need for expansionExpanded Capacities Realities of Chemical Industry: Past
  4. 4. In the last two decades, direction of innovation:  enhancing productivity & better material handling  enhancing quality  expanding & improving effluent treatment methods Drivers for innovation:  Cost  Quality  Productivity Recent signals from nature:  Earthquakes  Cyclones  Floods,  Diseases, etc… Impact on ENVIRONMENT??? Realities of Chemical Industry: Present Our practices UNSUSTAINABLE
  5. 5.  Probable Future  Environmental Norms – more stringent, more regulatory pressure  Common man’s awareness about their rights – expand  Customer’s / End User’s demand for “Green” products – increase  Water – crisis  Energy – short supply  Managing Eco. & Environmental Competitiveness – big challenge  raw material prices going up  labor, power & overheads going up  effluent treatment costs going up  selling prices going down Chemical Industry – tough times ahead (from the perspective of environment), unless we intervene & do something different. Realities of Chemical Industry: Future
  6. 6. Magnitude of environmental challenge Industry Sector Producti on (bn kg) No. of Steps E-Factor (Ref: R. Sheldon) Aqueous E-Factor Vol. of Liq. Eff. (bn lits) No. of tankers (mn) COD (lacs) Toxicity Pharma 0.75 - 1 7+ 50 - 100 20% 15 1.5 1.5 - 2 Very High Agro 1 - 1.5 5+ 40 - 60 25% 15 1.5 1 - 1.5 Very High Pigment 1.5 - 2 4+ 30 - 50 30% 20 2.0 0.5 - 1 Medium High Dyes 2 – 2.5 3+ 20 - 30 35% 20 2.0 0.25 - 0.5 High Total volume of liquid effluents (world) = around 70 bn lits/year = 7 million trucks/year Indian Market 20 – 30 % of global Total volume of liquid effluent (India) = 15 - 20 bn lits/year = 1.5 – 2.0 million trucks/year = 4,000 trucks/day Total Organic Mass in effluents (India) = 875,000 TPA (avg. COD = 50K)
  7. 7. Impact: huge threat to water bodies & human health  Quantity : approx. 50 - 70 bn kgs of liquid effluents include solid & gaseous effluents include all wastes from all other sectors (mining, steel, power,…..)  Practice : End-of-pipe-treatment (converting one kind of effluent in to other)  Issue : Toxicity not fully known (Ecotoxicity data available for less than 1% of human pharmaceuticals…Ref: journal “Regulatory Toxicology Pharmacology, April’2004)”  Degradation : very slow, impact unknown after degradation Impact on Economics  Direct Cost : loss of solvent, raw material & finished product, loss of utilities, treatment cost, higher overheads, loss of business…  Indirect Cost : unreliable supplies, loss of credibility in market, anxiety, etc. Impact
  8. 8. Approaches to deal with environmental challenges
  9. 9. What is Green Chemistry?  a science  a philosophy  an attitude  a new domain or branch of chemistry  “greener” way of doing the same chemistry Way we look at Green Chemistry:  an approach  a way of thinking  place to come from while designing or working on a product or process Distinguishing Green Chemistry
  10. 10. Definition of Green Chemistry: Chemistry & chemical engineering to design chemical products & processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances while producing high quality products through safe and efficient manufacturing processes. - “Green Chemistry” as defined by Green Chemistry Research & Dev. Act of 2005 Definition of Green Engineering: Green Engineering is the development and commercialization of industrial processes that are economically feasible and reduce the risk to human health & environment. Distinguishing Green Chemistry
  11. 11. 12 Principles of Green Chemistry  Prevent waste  Design safer chemicals and products  Design less hazardous chemical syntheses  Use renewable feedstocks  Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents  Avoid chemical derivatives  Maximize atom economy  Use safer solvents and reaction conditions  Increase energy efficiency  Design chemicals and products to degrade after use  Analyze in real time to prevent pollution  Minimize the potential for accidents - Environmental Protection Agency, USA 12 Principles of Green Engineering  Inherent Rather Than Circumstantial  Prevention Instead of Treatment  Design for Separation  Maximize Efficiency  Output-Pulled Versus Input-Pushed  Conserve Complexity  Durability Rather Than Immortality  Meet Need, Minimize Excess  Minimize Material Diversity  Integrate Material and Energy Flows  Design for Commercial "Afterlife"  Renewable Rather Than Depleting - Anastas P.T. & Zimmerman J. B., “Design through twelve principles of Green Engineering”, Env. Sci. Tech. 2003, 37 (5), 94A – 101A Distinguishing Green Chemistry
  12. 12. Some common myths about Green Chemistry:  Its expensive, not worth it  it is theory, doesn’t work in real life  it takes long time to develop & implement  it’s a cost center (biggest myth) Green Chemistry Performance Safety & Environment Cost/Economics Distinguishing Green Chemistry
  13. 13. Where to start from? Basis of selection?  Green Chemistry Metrices: may start with effluent stream with highest E-Factor, PMI, or any other matrices  Toxicity  Internal Competency  Cost pressures  Regulatory pressures  Demand from customer  Resources available  Management’s priority  Ready availability of a particular technology in market place Strategies for implementation of Green Chemistry
  14. 14. Short term e.g. Immediate, workable solution (reduce COD or reduce effluent load by recycling) Medium term e.g. Process Intensification of Unit Processes & Unit Operations (Greener catalyst, etc) Long term e.g. Paradigm shift in Engineering like micro reactors Very Long term e.g. designing new route of synthesis starting from renewable feedstock, using Biomimicry Strategies for implementation of Green Chemistry
  15. 15. Short term Time : 1 to 2 years Resources: very low Risk: very low Medium term Time: 2 to 4 years Resources : low to medium Risk: low to medium Long term Time: 4 to 8 years Resources: high Risk: high Very Long term Time : 8 to 16 years Resources: very high Risk: very high Strategies for implementation of Green Chemistry
  16. 16. Case Study 1:  Developed & commercialized by Newreka Team  Running successfully as commercial scale at a Pharma Company – 3 years  Transformed the was chemistry done to a “Greener Way”  Also, used our concept of Recycle@SourceTM to recycle aqueous stream Case Study 2:  Developed by Newreka Team, patented & under commercialization  Most polluting dye intermediate called H-Acid  Using the concept of Recycle@SourceTM Increasing Profitability with Green Chemistry: Case Studies
  17. 17. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 1 2 - 3 Raw Materials Reaction Medium Extraction Medium Intermediate/Product Effluents Reaction & Extraction Medium Intermediate/Product By-products Organic Impurities Inorganic Impurities Reality of our processes
  18. 18. Reality of our processes Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 4 - 5 different chemicals 4 - 5 different chemicals 4 - 5 different chemicals 4 - 5 different chemicals No option except Effluent Treatment Plant or Incineration Cocktail of 15 - 25 different chemicals Impossible to separate, recover or recycle
  19. 19. Manufacturing Site Reality of our plants Mfg. Block for Campaign Products Mfg. Block for Dedicated Products Dedicated Product Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 1 Step 2
  20. 20.  Each effluent stream has its own: • Physical properties • colour, pH, temperature • Chemical composition • organics, inorganics • Volume • Characteristics • COD, BOD, TDS, etc. • Toxicity & hazard  What we have is: • multiple effluent streams with widely differing quantities & characteristics Reality of our effluent streams
  21. 21. Current industrial practice Effluent stream from dedicated products Effluent stream from product 1 Effluent stream from product 2 Effluent stream from product 2 Cocktail of 40 - 50 different chemicals End-of-the-pipe Treatment (primary & secondary treatment, triple effect evaporator, incineration, solid waste disposal sites, land fill, etc.) Our Environment
  22. 22. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 2 - 3 Raw Materials Reaction Medium Extraction Medium Finished Product EffluentsStep 1 Reaction & Extraction Medium Product/Intermediate Organic Impurities Inorganic Impurities Recycle@Source TM Recycle@Source TM Solution: Concept
  23. 23. AQUEOUS EFFLEUNT STREAMS SOLVENT STREAMS (acidic, neutral, alkaline) Raw Finished Organic Inorganic Materials Product Impurities Impurities Recycled back to process selectively removed “RCat TM ” (customized proprietary catalytic formulation for Recycle @ Source) selectively & effectively removes undesired org. & inorg. impurities such that the streams can be recycled back in the process. Recycle@Source TM Solution: Concept
  24. 24. Conventional Technology: High pressure catalytic hydrogenation with Raney Ni Chemistry: Nitro to Amine Reduction Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 1
  25. 25. Feedback from customer: Recycling mother liquor for over 3 years now. Over 800 batches (at times on campaign basis) Just make-up for Water loss (saved millions of lit of fresh water) Amine Quality – 99%+ on HPLC, 10% Yield improvement Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 1
  26. 26. Impact: • Increase in profitability: 1. Yield improved by 10% 2. Batch Times reduced – 20% Higher productivity 3. Two solvents eliminated 4. Energy savings – distillation & purification avoided 5. Effluent treatment cost reduced (E-Factor down by 90%) 6. Safer process (H2, Ni, Chloroform, EDC, MeOH avoided) • Customer got breakeven on their investment in < 3 months. • Enhanced Quality is a Bonus. 26 Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 1
  27. 27. H – Acid (1-Amino-3-Hydroxy Naphthalene 3,6 Disulphonic Acid):  One of the oldest & biggest volume Dye Intermediates (goes mainly in to Black Dyes)  High volume product (India alone makes over 20,000 TPA)  Known in the industry for it’s high E-Factor (over 50 kgs waste / kg H-Acid)  Uses mostly conventional technologies  Theoretical yield 2.4 kgs H-Acid/kg naphthalene, Industry yield is 1.28 (53%)  Last innovation happened 5 years back – solvent based Fusion, yield increased from 1.1 to 1.28  Lot of efforts put in by private companies, government bodies, academic & research institution to change the process & reduce E-Factor Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 2
  28. 28. Fusion & Evaporation Isolation Vessel CENTRIFUGE Amine Methanol Caustic Acidic Mother Liquor H-Acid Representative diagram of Conventional Process Dilute Sulphuric Acid Characteristics Colour Deep Red pH 1.5 - 2.0 COD 150,000 TDS 15 - 20% Toxicity Not Known Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 2
  29. 29. Fusion & Evaporation Isolation Vessel CENTRIFUGE Amine Methanol Caustic Acidic Mother Liquor Storage Vessel Mother Liquor Recycle H-Acid More than 25 recycles E-Factor = 90% Patented Technology Yield = 10% RCat Treatment Recyle CatTM FilterFilter Spent RCat Representative diagram to explain the concept of Recycle@SourceTM solution as applied to H-Acid Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 2
  30. 30. Batch No. Product Colour Product Appearance H-Acid Obtained (gm) Product Purity Fresh Off white to Light Pink Powder 59 > 80.0% Recycle 1 Off white to Light Pink Powder 62 > 80.0% Recycle 2 Off white to Light Pink Powder 63 > 80.0% Recycle 3 Off white to Light Pink Powder 65 > 80.0% Recycle 4 Off white to Light Pink Powder 65 > 80.0% Recycle 5 Off white to Light Pink Powder 65 > 80.0% Product Characterization & Impact on Yield (Basis: 90 gm batch size) Recycle@Source TM Solution: Case Study 2
  31. 31. In the face of challenges that chemical industries face today, like: market competition, further shrinking of already “thin margins”, tighter environmental regulations, lower level of permissible discharge, tough stance of government & regulatory bodies, volatile market & fluctuating raw material & finished product prices Benefits of Recycle@SourceTM Solutions:  Freedom from treatment of huge quantities of effluents  Lower effluent treatment cost  Enhanced yields & productivity  Lower cost of production  Saving of time & energy which otherwise goes in dealing with regulatory bodies  Wide applicability – diverse industry sectors, wide range of reactions Benefits of Recycle@SourceTM Solutions
  32. 32. Impact of Recycle@SourceTM Solutions that are ready with Newreka: Total Impact on environment : effluent discharge to environment & fresh water consumption of industry reduced by over 50,000 MT per month. Potential Impact of a Green Chemistry Solution No. Product Total Production in (TPM) E-Factor * (kgs waste/kg product) Effluent Quality Minimu m No. of Recycles Effluent quantity before & after implementing NRS (litres per month) before after 1 Nevirapine 20 4 Mixture of solvents 500+ 80,000 0 2 Sildenafil Citrate 25 14 Neutral effluent 25 3,50,000 14,000 3 Omeprazole 50 8 Highly alkaline effluent 10 4,00,000 40,000 4 Albendazole 100 8 Highly alkaline effluent 25 8,00,000 32,000 5 Quietiapine 20 6 Neutral effluent 10 1,20,000 12,000 6 H-Acid 2000 26 Acidic effluent 15 5,20,00,000 35,00,000 7 OAPSA 75 13 Acidic effluent 15 9,75,000 65,000 8 FC Acid 50 10 Acidic effluent 15 5,00,000 33,000 9 4-ADAPSA 40 10 Acidic effluent 15 4,00,000 26,000 10 m-Phenylene Diamine Sulphonic Acid (MPDSA) 100 5 Acidic effluent 15 5,00,000 33,000
  33. 33.  Inertia to New Paradigm against the gravity of existing paradigm  Technical Barriers: no ecosystem for knowledge-based entrepreneurship  Seed capital & funding barriers  IP Barriers: protecting IP  Market Barriers: awareness, business model  Human Barriers: Inertia to change, culture, language  Scale-up Barriers: same result in lab as in plant, availability of plant, risk  Barriers created by “Old Nexus”  Regulatory Barriers: changes in DMF, FDA & Customer approvals  Financial Barriers: working capital for growth Barriers to implementation of Green Chemistry
  34. 34.  Human Barriers  inertia to change from old paradigm to New Paradigm  decades of shop-floor experience becomes barrier instead of resource  Scale-up Barriers  want to see same result in lab as that expected in plant  availability of plant to take trials with new technology  risk of scale-up – who will bear?  Market Barriers  Lack of awareness about potential of Green Chemistry tool box  Some myths like it’s expensive, it will increase cost, etc  IP Barriers  challenge to protect IP  little respect for IP in the industry – no hesitation in copying idea Key Barriers to implementation of Green Chemistry
  35. 35.  The question now, is no longer – Whether Green Chemistry or not? The question now is – How can we develop & implement Green Chemistry?  Each of us have a role to play here – Academic & research institutes, Students, Industry, Government & Regulatory bodies, Financial Institutions, etc  Academic & Research Institutes – working on real, relevant & critical environmental challenges faced by the Industry  Industry: Start wherever you want to or can. But let’s START. Create short term & long term strategy to implement Green Chemistry & Green Engineering in to operations.  Government & Regulatory Bodies – Facilitate, incentives to those taking risk  Shift from a cost centre approach to a profit-centric approach.  Environmental challenges are opportunities to make PROFITS Conclusions
  36. 36. Magnitude of Environment Challenges Magnitude of Environment Challenges ScaleScale UrgencyUrgency ?? ? ? ?? Green Chemistry : Our key challenge
  37. 37. Universities: 1. Limitations to Customize, Scale-up & Commercialize 2. Limitations to Market their Innovations Industry: 1. Profit Driven Approach 2. Limitation to approach & define their problems 3. Mindset of not investing on Green R&D Common Man & Society: 1. Lack of Awareness 2. Mindset of not investing on Education & Research Govt. Bodies & NGO’s: 1. Formulations of practical policies. 2. Carrot & Stick Approach 3. Limitations of paperwork & bureaucracy Key Roadblock in Implementation of GC
  38. 38. Universities: 1. Limitations to Customize, Scale-up & Commercialize 2. Limitations to Market their Innovations Industry: 1. Profit Driven Approach 2. Limitation to approach & define their problems 3. Mindset of not investing on Green R&D Common Man & Society: 1. Lack of Awareness 2. Mindset of not investing on Education & Research Govt. Bodies & NGO’s: 1. Limitations of paperwork & bureaucracy 2. Carrot & Stick Approach Industrial Green Chemistry World (IGCW) Attempt to bridge the gap
  39. 39. MNC or Large or Small Organization: Partner with us & express your commitment to Sustainability by being a Sponsor & share your initiatives Working on Green Chemistry: Present your case study & be a speaker Exhibit your “Green” Products & Services: Exhibit your Green Chemistry or Green Engineering based product, technology or services Apply for an Award: Apply for an award under various categories Participate in IGCW’2013 Symposium: Opportunity to meet pioneers and senior scientists from the field of Green Chemistry & Engineering IGCW2013: Invite you to be a stakeholder www.industrialgreenchem.co Event: IGCW2013 – Convention & Ecosystem Date: 6, 7 & 8 December’13 Venue: Hotel Renaissance & Conventional Center, Powai, Mumbai For more details and to participate, please contact: krishna.dave@newreka.co.in
  40. 40. Thank you For resources on Green Chemistry Please visit & Green Engineering: www.industrialgreenchem.com

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