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Alhambra

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igananc

Presentation used to explain the city to Spanish students taking part in the exchange. We saw this presentation in class and each student had to learn a part.

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Comenius Bilateral
“Creating Art Through Shared Passions”
Córdoba visit November 2014
14th November 2014, Friday
Population: 250,000
The pomegranate is the city emblem.
(in Spanish, 'granada')
European Label of
Languages 2008
Alhambra
GRANADA INTRODUCTION
Granada is located in southeastern Spain at the foot
of Sierra Nevada, the highest mountain range of the
Iberian peninsula. With more than a thousand years of
recorded history, Granada enjoys one of Spain's most
important cultural and architectural patrimonies. Besides
the Alhambra, designated as World Heritage by the
UNESCO, Granada boasts a Renaissance cathedral dating
from the 16th century and many other monuments: the
Royal Chapel, the Monastery of la Cartuja, the Monastery
of San Jerónimo and the Science Park Museum.
HISTORY
The city of Granada was founded by the
Romans. Later, after the invasion of the Iberian
Peninsula by the Muslims in the 8th century B.
C., the city received its current name: Granada.
The Catholic Monarchs conquered the city in
1492 finishing the Christian Reconquest of the
Iberian Peninsula.
LEGEND: The Moorish Sigh
There is a legend related to this fact
that has given name to a hill. Boabdil,
the last Moorish king in Spain, had just
handed over the keys of Granada to
Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and
Isabella. When Boabdil was leaving the
city, he stopped on a nearby hill and
took a last look at his lost city, he
started to weep and his mother said to
him, “Cry like a woman for what you
could not defend like a man.” This hill is
known as Suspiro del Moro (the
Moorish Sigh).
University
Granada is also well-known within Spain
due to the prestigious University of
Granada and, nowadays, vibrant night-life.
In fact, it is said that it is one of the three
best cities for university students (the
other two are Salamanca and Santiago de
Compostela).

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Alhambra

  • 1. Comenius Bilateral “Creating Art Through Shared Passions” Córdoba visit November 2014 14th November 2014, Friday Population: 250,000 The pomegranate is the city emblem. (in Spanish, 'granada') European Label of Languages 2008
  • 3. GRANADA INTRODUCTION Granada is located in southeastern Spain at the foot of Sierra Nevada, the highest mountain range of the Iberian peninsula. With more than a thousand years of recorded history, Granada enjoys one of Spain's most important cultural and architectural patrimonies. Besides the Alhambra, designated as World Heritage by the UNESCO, Granada boasts a Renaissance cathedral dating from the 16th century and many other monuments: the Royal Chapel, the Monastery of la Cartuja, the Monastery of San Jerónimo and the Science Park Museum.
  • 4. HISTORY The city of Granada was founded by the Romans. Later, after the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by the Muslims in the 8th century B. C., the city received its current name: Granada. The Catholic Monarchs conquered the city in 1492 finishing the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • 5. LEGEND: The Moorish Sigh There is a legend related to this fact that has given name to a hill. Boabdil, the last Moorish king in Spain, had just handed over the keys of Granada to Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. When Boabdil was leaving the city, he stopped on a nearby hill and took a last look at his lost city, he started to weep and his mother said to him, “Cry like a woman for what you could not defend like a man.” This hill is known as Suspiro del Moro (the Moorish Sigh).
  • 6. University Granada is also well-known within Spain due to the prestigious University of Granada and, nowadays, vibrant night-life. In fact, it is said that it is one of the three best cities for university students (the other two are Salamanca and Santiago de Compostela).
  • 7. Tapeo The gastronomy of Granada and Andalusia is rich and diverse. Furthermore, Granada is home of the "arte del tapeo" or "tapas art". With your drink you will always receive a free piece of its cuisine.
  • 8. • 10:10-11:30 Arrival Granada. • Stroll walking to El Mirador de San Nicolás, Albaicín, Paseo de los Tristes, Plaza Nueva, Catedral, Alcaicería, Plaza Bibarrambla,
  • 11. • 11:30-13:00 Free time. Shopping in city centre. Have packed lunch. Meeting at Plaza Bibarrambla. Stay inside the pedestrian precinct. • 13:00 Stroll to the Alhambra. • 13:45 Arrival to the Alhambra.
  • 13. Albaicín. This is the most authentic quarter of Granada and the one where one feels the essence of the city. The scent of orange blossom accompanies travellers to the Mirador de San Nicolás, from where there are magnificent views of the Alhambra. Between water cisterns, narrow alleyways and lush gardens stand the “cármenes”, the typical villas of the quarter. What trees can you see in this quarter? pines cypresses lemon trees orange trees
  • 14. Paseo de los Tristes
  • 15. Paseo de los Tristes. Paseo de los Tristes literally means Promenade of the Sad. This square runs parallel to the River Darro and owes its name to the fact that funeral corteges used to pass through here on their way up to the cemetery behind the Alhambra. The name of this Promenade is due to: Prisoners lovers funerals exiles
  • 16. • Plaza Nueva. The square was built to cover up the river that flows underneath in order to create more space in the city. The square soon became one of the most important centres in Granada and supposedly tournaments and bullfights used to be held here as well as public executions.
  • 17. • Royal Chapel. This building adjoining the Cathedral was the place chosen by Fernando the Catholic to house the Royal Pantheon. The Main Altar contains the remains of the monarchs which are kept in beautiful sepulchres crafted by Domenico Fancelli. • Who are buried in this chapel?
  • 18. Cathedral. Its construction, ordered by the Catholic Monarchs, was started at the beginning of the 16th. The main façade was designed by Alonso Cano in Gothic style. It has five naves. Of special note are its impressively tall pillars formed by large Corinthian columns which support pilasters.
  • 20. Alcaicería. A faithful recreation of the old silk exchange which was the centre of commercial life in Muslim Granada, its golden period came in the late Nasrid kingdom. The Alcaicería was renowned for the quality of the silk, in which traders from Granada specialised. Traditionally, the bazaars were located in the centre of the city, where there were also inns offering accommodation for the traders. All the entrances were provided with gates which were closed at night to prevent pillaging. The Alcaicería includes jewellery shops and silversmiths’ in which it is possible to find a wide variety of craft products: pottery, silverwork, basketwork, taracea (wood inlay with pieces of bone and mother-of pearl)
  • 22. Corral del carbón Coal yard. Formerly a grain exchange warehouse it is the oldest monument dating from the Moorish period and the only completely preserved building of its kind in Spain. Built in the 14th century, it was used as a trading place and a storehouse. Of particular note are its monumental façade, the vestibule at the entrance covered by a dome decorated with stucco lacework, and the picturesque inner courtyard. During the 16th century the building was used as an inn for coal merchants – hence its modern name – and later as a theatre.
  • 23. • Meeting point: Bibarrambla Square. The name Bibarrambla mean "Gate of the River" since the square originally stood on the sandy river bank. In Moorish times, festivals and jousts were held here, and later in Christian times bullfights. • The Fountain of the Giants was built in the 17th century. It shows giants supporting the lower of two bowls with a statue of Neptune on top. The square is famous today for its flower stalls.
  • 24. Alhambra. Introduction. • Alhambra. Introduction. (Pilar/Marta Beltrán) • The Alhambra is a palace and fortress built during the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers of the Emirate of Granada. It became a Christian palace after Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada. It comprises four areas: the palatial area, the military zone or Alcazaba, the city or Medina, and the Generalife gardens. • () Point the areas in the map.
  • 27. The Palace of Charles V.
  • 28. 1.- THE PALACE OF CHARLES V. (Cristina/ María) The Palace of Charles V was started in 1526. It was commanded by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who wished to establish his residence close to the Alhambra palaces. The palace was designed by a pupil of Michelangelo, Pedro Machuca. The plan of the palace is a 63 meter square containing an inner circular patio, which has two levels. The lower consists of a Doric colonnade of stone and the upper floor is formed by a stylized ionic colonnade with no decoration. This organization of the patio shows a deep knowledge of the architecture of the Roman Empire, and would be framed in pure Renaissance style but for its curved shape, which surprises the visitor entering from the main façade. Once, the courtyard of the Palace of Charles V was used as a bullfight ring. Today this houses both the Alhambra Museum and the Fine Arts Museums.
  • 29. • (?) ¿Qué forma tiene el palacio en su interior? What shape is the palace inside? • un cuadrado/ un círculo/ una estrella/ un rectángulo a square a circle a star a rectangle • Haz una foto de tu grupo en el centro del Palacio de Carlos V. Take a picture of your group in the centre of Charles V Palace.
  • 30. The Alcazaba (Antonio/ Adrián) • The Alcazaba was the place for the soldiers who protected the city lived. Alcazaba means citadel. It was surrounded by walls and watch towers. Sitting in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it would be hard to be surprised by an enemy at this height.
  • 31. • (?)¿Quién vivía en la Alcazaba?/ Who used to live in the Alcazaba? • Soldados y reyes/guardias reales/soldados y guardias soldiers &kings royal guards soldiers & guards • (?) ¿Qué significa “alcazaba”?/ What does “alcazaba” mean? Castillo/palacio/ciudadela castle/palace/citadel
  • 32. • Tower of Homage. (Keep Tower).
  • 33. The fortress dates back to the 13th century. The entrance to the Alcazaba was at the foot of the Tower of Homage. The gate is very well protected not to be seen from the outside. Then there is an L-shaped walkway and more turns so they could control access and respond from above to an attack. As it was a city, there were houses, cisterns and silos or pits to store food (the ground was a good place to keep food fresh in the summer)
  • 34. • (?) ¿En qué siglo fue construida esta fortaleza? Which century was this fortress built? • Siglo 11/ siglo 12/ siglo 13/ siglo 14 11th century/12nd century/13rd century/14th century 957454725 • (?) Está bien situada para controlar la ciudad? Is it well located to control the city? • (?)¿Para qué se usaban los aljibes? What are cisterns used for? • (?)¿Para qué se usaban los silos? What were silos used for?
  • 35. The interior of the Alcazaba.
  • 36. • Torre de la Vela (Watch Tower) (Iris/ Alba Pérez) • The primary reason to visit the Alcazaba is to climb to the top of this tower and enjoy the spectacular views of the city of Granada and surrounding country side. It’s the highest tower and it contains the greatest historical value as the cross was raised here on January 2nd 1492 to mark the end of the Christian Reconquest. An interesting local tradition is the ringing of the Torre de la Vela's bell. Every 2nd January young girls are allowed to ring the bells in the hope of finding a husband. Describe what you can see and think about the defensive function of this tower.
  • 37. Torre de la Vela (Watch Tower) • (?) ¿Qué hay encima de la Torre de la Vela?/ What is on top of The Torre de la Vela? • una cruz/ una campana/una brújula/un reloj a cross/ a bell/ a compass/ a clock • Haz una foto de tu grupo desde la Torre de la Vela. Take a picture of your group from the Watch Tower.
  • 39. NASHRID PALACES 1. Small entrance square 2. First courtyard 3. Ruins of a mosque 4. Machuca courtyard 5. Oratory 6. Mexuar Palace 7. Golden room courtyard 8. Golden room 9. Myrtles Courtyard 10.Boat room 11.Ambassadors or Comares hall 1. Baths 2. Queen’s dressing room tower 3. Gardens of Daraxa 4. Lions courtyard 5. Muqarnas hall 6. Kings hall 7. Hall of the two sisters 8. Daraxa viewpoint 9. Hall of the Abencerrajes 10.Rauda or cemetery 11.Charles V Palace chapel
  • 40. THE PALATIAL AREA (Nasrid Palaces) • Hall of the Mexuar. (Lorena/Silvia) This is one of the first rooms to be built in the Palace. It was the place where the Surah or Counsel of Ministers met. It was also the hall where the Sultan dispensed justice. • (?) Esta sala se usaba como…/This room was used as a? • salón de baile/ dormitorio/ tribunal/ cocina dance hall/ bedroom/ court/ kitchen
  • 41. Hall of the Mexuar.
  • 42. The Oratory. One of the places for the Sultan, his family and the Court.
  • 43. Golden room courtyard with Golden room and Comares façade. (Alejandro /Alba Pérez) The Golden Room. The name is derived from the beautiful woodwork ceiling, repainted and decorated by the Catholic Monarchs, as evidenced by their emblem, the yoke and arrows. The room was used by the officials to write down and carry out the Sultan’s orders.
  • 45. • (?) ¿Qué es dorado en esta habitación? What is golden in this room? • Las paredes/ las puertas/ las ventanas/el techo • walls doors windows ceiling • Have a look at the nice views from the windows. • Try and take a picture of someone in your group sitting by the window. • Encuentra este friso en el cuarto. Find this mosaic in the room.
  • 46. Façade of Comares (Antonio/ Adrián) • It stands opposite the Golden Room. Especially remarkable is the eave (alero), a masterpiece of Islamic woodwork. The combination of geometric, epigraphic and floral ornamental elements is displayed to perfection in this Façade. The Façade separated the administrative and public sector from the private and familiar part of the Palace. There are two doors. One led to the Sultan family rooms, the other was designed to confuse a possible intruder and led nowhere.
  • 48. • (?)¿Cuál es la puerta falsa? Which is the fake door? • (?) ¿Qué no hay en la fachada?/ What is not there on the façade? • artesonado de madera/ yesería/ decoración floral woodwork plaster stalactites floral ornaments • Take a picture with your group at the foreground and the façade at the background.
  • 49. The Court of the Myrtles (Arrayanes) or Comares. (Clara/ Natalia Ruiz) • In the Hispano-Muslim houses, the courtyard is the core of family life, around which the rooms are distributed. The Court of the Myrtles takes its name from the bushes of this plant, also called mirth. The Pool plays an important part in the architectural and aesthetic definition of the site, with its surface of water that acts as a mirror and reflects the surrounding structures, generating a geometrical projection.
  • 50. • (?) ¿De dónde procede el nombre de este patio?/ Where does this court take its name from? • Familia real/ mascotas/ setos/ estanque royal family pets bushes pool • Take a picture of your group reading the notebook.
  • 51. The Court of the Myrtles (Arrayanes)
  • 52. The Room of the Ship (Sala de la Barca). (María José/ Elena) • Antechamber to the most important space of the Palace of Comares, its name may have come from the cylindrical shape of the dome, like an inverted boat hull (casco), or from the Arab term al- baraka, repeatedly inscribed on the stucco of the walls. The lattice (entramado) frame is made of pine wood. • (?) ¿De qué madera está hecho el techo? What wood is the ceiling made of? • pino/ ébano/cedro/ haya// pine/ebony/ cedar/ beech
  • 54. The Chamber of the Ambassadors. (Jorge/ Lucía) Also known as the Hall of Comares or the Throne Room. It has got nine small similar rooms, except for the central room reserved for the Sultan. The name “Comares”, Arabic Qum¯ariˆs, comes from the stained-glass windows in the nine balconies. The floor of the room still conserves many original golden tiles. The walls are fully decorated. The lower part conserves part of the original tiled socle (plinto), above a rich plasterwork combines geometrical patterns. The epigraphy of the Hall reproduces holy texts: “Eternity is an attribute of God”; “Depart in goodness since it is God who helps”; “Highness, Glory, Eternity, Empire and Power only belong to God”.
  • 55. • (?) ¿Cuántas habitaciones rodean el Salón del Trono? How many rooms surround the Throne Chamber? • 7 8 9 12 0 • (?) ¿Cuál es el origen del nombre “Comares”? What is the origen of the name “Comares”? • las habitaciones/ el plinto/ las vidrieras/ el techo the rooms/ the socle/ the stained-glass Windows/ the ceiling •  Encuentra al menos tres mosaicos e intenta pensar de qué figura proceden: cuadrado, triángulo, hexágono, rombo..... Find at least three mosaics and guess the geometric shape they come from: square, triangle, hexagon, rhomboid…
  • 56. The Chamber of the Ambassadors
  • 57. The Hall of the Muqarnas (Sala de los Mocárabes). (Alba Garrido/ Andrea Ramírez) The Palace of the Lions is structured around two dwelling areas. The first one was the Hall of the Muqarnas, used as a vestibule. Its name comes from the dome that the room originally had. The dome must have been profusely decorated, but due to the fragility of the plasterworks, it was badly damaged and replaced by the present structure.
  • 58. • (?) El nombre de este salón procede de …/ The name of this hall comes from the … • El nombre del sultan/ cúpula/ arquitecto/ valle sultan’s name dome architect valley
  • 59. The Hall of the Muqarnas
  • 60. The Court of the Lions. (Luis/ Paula) The Palace of the Lions was the architectural pinnacle of the Alhambra and a synthesis of the finest Moorish artistic styles. Its celebrated fountain was a symbol of its decorative richness and an example of the complex water system. The fountain is said to symbolize different things. One of them is that the twelve lions refer to the signs of the zodiac. Another is that it has a political meaning related to King Solomon as there is an inscription in the fountain that says so. But the most important of them relates to the paradise; the fountain as the origin of life and the four rivers of Paradise. The architectural pattern of the Palace of the Lions follows the traditional design of the Spanish-Moorish houses (a central open air courtyard as the centre of family life flanked by rooms on a ground floor and one upper floor).
  • 61. • (?)¿Qué simboliza la fuente? What does the fountain symbolize? el paraiso/ la jungla/ la libertad/ el infierno • the paradise the jungle freedom hell •  Cuenta cuántos leones hay en la fuente. Tell the number of lions in the fountain. • Take a picture of your group with the lions at the background.
  • 63. • The Hall of the Abencerrages. (Iris/ Ángel) • Its name comes from a legend according to which the members of this North-African family were invited to a banquet and then massacred in this hall because one member was told to have slept with the sultan’s wife. Legend says that the red stains on the fountain and the floor are still evidence of the blood spilt when the thirty-seven gallant Abencerrages were beheaded. Noteworthy is the eight-point stalactite star of the dome that spreads out into eight trunk-like stalactites. Behind the entrance door, we find two corridors that led to a toilet and to the upper floor, where the romantic harem courtyard can be found.
  • 64. • (?)¿Qué has encontrado más interesante de este salón? What did you find most interesting of this hall? • La cúpula/ la legenda/ la fuente/ la architectura/ otro… dome/ legend/ fountain/ architecture/ other
  • 65. The Hall of the Abencerrages
  • 66. • The Hall of the Kings. (Carmen/ Marta Villa) The Hall of the Kings is the most emblematic chamber of the Palace of the Lions. It was an area used for relaxation and leisure, structured around a large vestibular hall, more than 30m long, that was reserved for receptions and celebrations.
  • 67. • The Hall of the Kings
  • 68. • The Hall of the Two Sisters. (Cristina/ María) • This room is covered with a huge vaulted ceiling of muqarnas (honeycomb) with an octagonal plan. Underneath, windows with jalousies soften the light to create a dreamlike effect. The tiled socle (zócalo), the most peculiar of its sort in the Alhambra, is a lovely geometrical composition consisting of variously coloured interwoven laces. At the far end, there are two chambers with alcoves (bedchambers), closed by richly decorated wooden doors, which implies that the room has a residential purpose. In the center a fountain pours water running to the Court of the Lions. The name of this room comes from the two large marble flagstones (losas) that flank the fountain.
  • 69. • (?) ¿Cuál es el diseño del plinto? What is the pattern of the socle? flores/ encaje/ figures geométricas/ círculos • flowers laces geometrical figures circles • (?)La habitación se llama así por…//The room is named after... • 2 piedras/ 2 hijas del sultan/ 2 losas/ 2 azulejos 2 stones/ 2 sultan’s daughters/ 2 slaves/ 2 tiles
  • 70. The Hall of the Two Sisters
  • 71. • The Court of the Vestibule. Observation Point of Daraxa. (Eric/ Marta Villa) • Behind the stalactite arch is one of the loveliest designs to behold in the Alhambra palaces: the Lindaraja Balcony. The name in Spanish of the lookout is derived from “Ayn Dar Aisa”, which is Arabic for “the eyes of Aisa’s home.” During the Nasrid reign it served as a watchtower overlooking the countryside, with a garden extending from its base. As you approach the threshold of the arch, you see some of the most the delightful tiling in the Alhambra, with small tiles forming an attractive design.
  • 72. • (?)¿Qué puedes ver desde este punto de observación? What can you see from this observation point? • unos azulejos/ el campo/ la universidad/ unas ovejas some tiles the countryside the university some sheep
  • 73. The Court of the Vestibule. Observation Point of Daraxa
  • 74. • The Rauda. (Jorge/ Paula) • Rawda means cemetery. It was here, beside the Palace of the Lions, where the royal family buried its deceased family members. When the tombs were discovered at the end of the 19th century, they were empty. Boabdil had the remains of his ancestors moved to the foot of the Mondújar Castle.
  • 75. • (?) Contienen las tumbas en este cementerio musulmán restos humanos? Do the tombs in this Moorish cemetery contain human remains? sí/ no/ sólo algunas yes/no/only some of them
  • 77. The Generalife (Luis/ Natalia) • The Generalife was the summer house of the king of Granada. They date back to the 1200's AD. The complex consists of the Patio de la Acequia (Water-Garden Courtyard), which has a long pool framed by flowerbeds, fountains, colonnades and pavilions, and the Jardín de Sultana (Sultaness Garden or Courtyard of the Cypress). Here Boabdil’s wife met his lover. His family was later killed in los Abencerrajes Room. Higher up is the Jardín Alto (Upper Gardens), access to which is through a curious staircase with flowing water.
  • 78. Patio de la Acequia (Water-Garden Courtyard),
  • 80. Patio del ciprés o de la sultana
  • 81. Jardín Alto (Upper Gardens), staircase with flowing water.
  • 82. • (¿) ¿Cuántos años tienen estos jardines?/How old are these gardens? • 700 años/seis siglos/650 años/ocho siglos 700 years/six centuries/650 years/eight centuries •  Once you arrive to the water staircase introduce your hand in the water and feel the temperature. Don’t mess with the water, please. • Take a picture of your group with the gardens at the back. Take another picture of the Cypress log in the Sultaness Courtyard.