As we may think


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

As we may think

  1. 1. ATLANTIC MAGAZINE, JULY 1945By Vannevar Bush
  2. 2.  Introduction War effects Progress in recording Technological Predictions Progress in writing Associative thinking Memex
  3. 3.  Growing amount of research however, our methods of transmitting and reviewing the results of research are old scientific efforts should make all previous collected human knowledge more accessible through machine
  4. 4.  Visionary article from 1945  Intended to set the direction for research in the post-war period Concerned with the problem of finding information  Existing technology hopelessly out of date: ▪ The amount of information is being “expanded at a prodigious rate”, but the means we use to find it is “the same as was used in the days of square-rigged ships”  The solution is to get away from hierarchical systems of organization and adopt new techniques that reflect how the brain works
  5. 5.  Bush had been part of the Manhattan Project, which produced the atomic bomb After the war, he wanted to direct attention to other possibilities for science
  6. 6. Master the Knowledge,Environment Communication
  7. 7.  Acquisition ▪ Instant photography, dictation Storage ▪ Unlimited image storage in microfilm Calculation / Automation ▪ Fully automatic accounting (point-of-sale, billing) ▪ Electric, fast • Programmable • Data entry job ▪ Symbolic logic + math (à la Mathematica) Retrieval ▪ Rapid selection via index (card, film, or magnetic index) ▪ Information workstation: Memex • Hyperlinks
  8. 8.  dry photography - used in facsimile transmission microfilm - The Encyclopedia Britannica could be reduced to the volume of a matchbox tiny camera fitted with universal-focus lens - move freely and record the worthy
  9. 9.  Voder - emits recognizable speech of stroked key Vocoder - converse of Voder Vannevar Bush predict a new machine: - take dictation - type it automatically - talk back if the author wants to review what he just said
  10. 10.  creative aspect of thinking involve the entire process by which man profits by his inheritance of acquired knowledge automatic telephone exchange etc. the way human mind works - association - things are connected by association of thoughts
  11. 11.  “The human mind … operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain… The speed of action, the intricacy of trails, the detail of mental pictures, is awe-inspiring beyond all else in nature.” Vannevar Bush: As We May Think (1945)
  12. 12.  an electromechanical device an individual desk with screens, a keyboard, buttons, levers a user can store all his books, records, and communications as microfilm a user could add or remove microfilm reels at will personal computer, online encyclopedias
  13. 13.  Consists of a desk containing – a very large set of documents stored on microfilm – screens on which those documents are projected – a device for photographing new documents – a mechanism for retrieving documents at the push of a button – the ability to create links between documents – the ability to build trails through documents, add comments to documents, insert new documents, etc.A “sort of mechanizedprivate file and library”
  14. 14.  Is your head full of little documents that are all hyperlinked together?  I don’t think so !  Mine certainly isn’t !  We don’t think in terms of hyperlinked? documents; we think in terms of concepts, and associations between concepts
  15. 15. WWW Berners-Lee Engelbart Bush HypertextAs We May Think AUGMENT MEMEX Nelson Xanadu NLS  Documents are about subjects  Those subjects exist as concepts in our brains  They are connected by a network of associations  This is how we store knowledge  Documents are just a representation of some part of that knowledge
  16. 16.  System for storing personal digital media: documents, images, sounds, and videos Four principles of MyLifeBits Unique features:  Interactive Story By Query  Time interval property
  17. 17.  Some of his ideas were wrong like document- centric information storage Led to many new ideas like ▪ TOPIC MAP
  18. 18. AS WE MAY THINK