Implementing videos in online educational settings


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  • Communications that can overcome different frames of reference and clarify ambiguous issues to promote understanding in a timely manner are considered more rich. Communications that take a longer time to convey understanding are less rich.
  • Implementing videos in online educational settings

    1. 1. Implementing Videos in Online Educational SettingsGlobal Shift in EducationGlobal Studies Association, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign<br />Laeeq Khan<br />Michigan State University<br />Saturday, May 08, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Changing Educational Landscape<br />Education has undergone a paradigm shift<br />Greater use of internet resources to study and learn <br />Economic considerations <br />Convenience<br />Some skepticism<br /> (Bower, 2001; Postman 2003; Noble 2002)<br />
    3. 3. Online Learning<br />
    4. 4. Online Learning Statistics (Allen & Seaman, 2010)<br />Rapid growth in online enrollments at 17% in 2008 <br /> 1.2 % > the growth of student population in the overall higher education<br />Students in higher education take at least one online course<br />
    5. 5. What Learning?<br />Learning<br />Web-based learning (Khan, 1998)<br />
    6. 6. Benefits<br />Employee training (Simmons, 2002, Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)<br />Time and money saving due to elimination of distance, <br />Access to experts and convenience (Rossett, 2002)<br />
    7. 7. Vision<br />“the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.<br />(Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)<br />
    8. 8. Effective online Delivery<br />(Based on Leidner and Jarvenpaa ,1993)<br />
    9. 9. Online Learning<br />e-learning is often referred to as web-based learning (Khan, 1998)<br />Several terminologies are interchangeably for online learning - virtual learning, e-learning computer-assisted learning, web-based learning and distance learning<br />
    10. 10. Benefits of Online Learning<br />Organizations are increasingly using online learning methods for employee training (Simmons, 2002), (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)<br />Students are also advantaged due to their skills being applicable in businesses (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1993).<br />Time, cost saving due to elimination of distance, access to experts, and convenience (Rossett, 2002).<br />
    11. 11. Online Learning<br />“the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.<br />(Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)<br />
    12. 12. Video based learning<br />
    13. 13. Why Videos ?<br />
    14. 14. Technological advancement<br />Increasing network bandwidth, better user access<br />User friendly software and hardware<br />More practical to deliver instructional materials (Martindale, 2002)<br />Live instructional broadcasts or recorded material<br />
    15. 15. Visual cues<br />VBI was more memorable than the traditional text-based instruction (Choi & Johnson, 2005)<br />Context-based videos in online courses have the potential to enhance learners’ retention and motivation (Choi& Johnson, 2005)<br />Learners can visualize a process or see how something works<br />
    16. 16. Easing complexity<br />Online instructors will be able to better help their students<br />Streaming media can help understand “complex concepts and procedures” otherwise difficult to elaborate with text and graphics (Klass, 2003; Reed, 2003)<br />Additional support for learners<br />
    17. 17. Good old TV<br />Research by Salomon (1984) found that:<br />sixth grade children rated television (video) as an easier medium to learn from than books.<br />
    18. 18. “A picture is worth a thousand words”, what about video?<br />Enhanced creativity and novelty<br />Multimedia can help improve and augment the learning process of students as they see the concept in action (Michelich, 2002)<br />When continual feedback needed, video is far superior than text or graphics. (Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V., 2007)<br />
    19. 19. Motivation - Videos<br />“The arousal, direction, and sustenance of behavior” <br />(Keller, 1979, p. 27).<br />Enhanced student engagement and capturing of cultural context (Stilborne & MacGibbon, 2001)<br />
    20. 20. Student Motivation & Online Learning<br />For conducive learning, students need to:<br />“become active participants in their own learning”<br />“effective instruction has embedded within it motivational components that enhance self-efficacy and perceived challenge” <br />(Hacker & Niederhauser, 2000, p. 53).<br />
    21. 21. The Vital Link<br />Based on Goslin, 2003, Wlodkowski, 1985<br />
    22. 22. Situational Interest<br />Situational interests sparked by books, websites, videos<br />Catch and hold (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000)<br />Catch – that’s gets students engaged<br />Hold – deeper learning – intrinsic motivation<br />Situational interest can lead a student to learn more about a topic. As knowledge deepens, reasons for engaging in a activity become intrinsic<br />
    23. 23. Media richness theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986)<br />Richer communication generally more effective than less rich media. <br />Example: phone call – a less richer medium than video conferencing<br />
    24. 24. Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory (1990) <br />When visual and auditory information are presented together, they do not compete for important mental resources, but actually work together<br />Video technology can make learning alive <br />Recall enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form<br />
    25. 25. Implementing Videos<br />
    26. 26. Successful Video Implementation<br />Results of an experiment showed that effective online learning hinged on interactivity of the video (Zhang et al. 2006)<br />Effective online delivery is based on technology, instructor characteristics and student characteristics (Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 1993)<br />
    27. 27. Technology<br />Processing speed<br />At least 256 MB RAM, preferably higher<br />A large, fast hard drive (80+ GB)<br />Good quality graphics card<br />Good internet connection<br />
    28. 28. Software<br />Video capture software: <br />Camtasia, Jing, Jing Pro<br />Video editing software: <br />Microsoft Movie Maker, Apple iMovie, Avid FreeDV<br />Video software: <br />VLC Media player, Real player, Win Media player <br />
    29. 29. Instructor Role<br />Encouraging creativity in an online global classroom <br />Online instructor role - understanding effective video production techniques<br />Timely video-based personalized feedback<br />
    30. 30. Student Characteristics & Instructional Design <br />Instructional design - Understanding learner's goals, needs, and motivations in taking a course a basic tenet of instructional design (McManus, 2000; Schrum, 1995)<br />Technology acceptance<br />Commitment & motivation<br />Effective communication<br />
    31. 31. Successful Video Implementation<br />Physical education (Lim & Pellet, 2009)<br />Teacher training and development (Laarhoven, T., Munk, D., Zurita, B., Smith, T., 2008; Star & Stirckland, 2008; McConnell, et al, 2008; Lundeberg, Koehler, Zhang, Karunaratne, McConnell, Eberhardt, 2008; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen, Terpstra, 2008)<br />Information retention and recall (Baggett, 1979; Cowen, 1984; Choi & Johnson, 2007)<br />
    32. 32. Endless possibilities<br />Supporting older learners (GramB, D., & Struve, D. 2009)<br />Language learning (Herron, Dubreil, Corrie, and Cole, 2002; Al-Seghayer, 2001; Tscirner, 2001; Secules, Herron, & Tomasello, 1992; Hung, 2009) <br />Distance Learning & eLearning (Bloomberg, 2007; Bassili, 2008; Pouezevara & Parajuli, 2007; Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, Nunamaker, 2006)<br />Overall classroom reflection (Hansen, 1989). <br />
    33. 33. Videos <br />Video always better? Not necessarily<br />Not all are visual learners<br />Opportunity for better communication<br />Increased learner motivation<br />
    34. 34. Laeeq Khan (<br />Thank You!<br />