Worlds Most Deprived, 2008


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Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger; more at

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Worlds Most Deprived, 2008

  1. 1. The World’s Most Deprived Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger
  2. 2. Millennium Development Goals <ul><li>The first MDG: Cut extreme poverty and hunger in half between 1990 and 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Will the first MDG be met? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, who will move out of poverty and hunger? Who will be left behind? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where the world’s poor live: Poor living on less than $1 a day 1,248 million poor People in 1990 969 million poor people in 2004 Middle East & North Africa 0% Latin America & the Caribbean 4% Europe & Central Asia 0% Europe & Central Asia 0% Middle East & North Africa 0% Latin America & the Caribbean 5% South Asia 39% South Asia 47% Sub-Saharan Africa 19% Sub-Saharan Africa 31% East Asia & Pacific 38% East Asia & Pacific 17%
  4. 4. Global progress reducing poverty <ul><li>World has achieved considerable progress in </li></ul><ul><li>reducing poverty: </li></ul><ul><li>Population living on less than $1 a day: </li></ul><ul><li>28.7 % in 1990 18.0% in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>At this rate, MDG poverty target will be met globally by 2015 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Regional progress uneven <ul><li>Reductions in global poverty largely driven by East Asia and the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in poverty rates in Sub-Saharan Africa stagnating: </li></ul><ul><li>46.8 % in 1990 41.1 % in 2004 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Looking beneath the $1 a day line Subjacent poor: 75 cents – one dollar 485 million people Medial poor: 50 cents – 75 cents 323 million people Ultra poor: Less than 50 cents 162 million people
  7. 7. Changes in poverty by region & group, 1990 - 2004 Subjacent poor ($0.75 and <$1): 485 million Ultra poor (<$0.50): 162 million Medial poor ($0.50 and <$0.75): 323 million East Asia & Pacific -131 m East Asia & Pacific -138 m East Asia & Pacific -38 m South Asia -27 m South Asia -37 m South Asia 30 m Sub- Saharan Africa 14 m Sub-Saharan Africa 15 m Sub- Saharan Africa 29 m -200 -100 0 100 Change in number of people (millions)
  8. 8. The world’s ultra poor: Where do they live? <ul><li>Three-fourths of the world’s ultra poor live in Sub-Saharan Africa, the only region where ultra poverty predominates </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Asia’s poor live just below the dollar a day line—only a small minority is ultra poor </li></ul>
  9. 9. Progress in poverty reduction varies by region <ul><li>Between 1990 and 2004: </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia and the Pacific: substantial reduction in poverty in all three groups </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia: subjacent poverty increased, number of ultra poor decreased significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa: number of poor increased in each category, particularly in ultra poverty </li></ul>
  10. 10. Poverty declined more for the less poor Subjacent Poverty Medial Poverty Ultra Poverty -4.0 -5.1 -1.4 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Equitable growth Actual decline % decline in poverty: equitable growth vs. actual 1990 - 2004 -3.1 -3.8 -3.6
  11. 11. Progress has been slowest for the poorest <ul><li>Income growth benefited those just below the poverty line most </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra poverty rates decreased less than if </li></ul><ul><li>everyone’s income had grown equally </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia and the Pacific: rapid economic </li></ul><ul><li>growth benefited all groups nearly equally </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa & South Asia: ultra poor mostly left behind </li></ul>
  12. 12. IFPRI’s Global Hunger Index <ul><li>Innovative tool—measures hunger and undernutrition in developing and transitional countries </li></ul><ul><li>Combines three indicators into one index: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proportion of people who are calorie deficient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>child underweight prevalence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>child mortality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Global Hunger Index: South Asia made more progress than Sub-Saharan Africa
  14. 14. Findings of Global Hunger Index <ul><li>Hotspots of hunger: </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa: slow progress in combating hunger, especially in reducing child mortality and undernutrition </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia: large strides in reducing hunger, improving child nutrition, but has highest rate of underweight children in the world </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who are the world’s poorest and hungry? <ul><li>Households in remote rural areas, located furthest from roads, markets, schools, and health services </li></ul><ul><li>Those facing exclusion because of their ethnicity, gender or disability </li></ul><ul><li>People with few assets or education, or access to credit </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why those in ultra poverty stay poor? <ul><li>From poor area or born poor </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of disasters or shocks can persist for years </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of education, labor, assets, and access to credit can create a trap </li></ul><ul><li>Belong to a disadvantaged group </li></ul>
  17. 17. The road ahead <ul><li>“ Business as usual” not sufficient to improve welfare of world’s most deprived </li></ul><ul><li>New and different action required to help those living in extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul>
  18. 18. To help the poorest move out of poverty <ul><li>Improve access to markets and basic services, particularly in remote rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Provide insurance against health shocks </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent child malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in education for those with few assets </li></ul><ul><li>Address exclusion of disadvantaged groups </li></ul>