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Urban food environments and malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific

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David Dawe
IFPRI-FAO conference, "Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition"
November 28–30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Urban food environments and malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific

  1. 1. Urban food environments and malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific Different interventions are needed for urban areas David Dawe Senior Economist, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific 30 November 2018, Bangkok
  2. 2. Urbanization is proceeding rapidly
  3. 3. Differences in urban and rural food systems/environments mean that different interventions will be required ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be of prime working age in general and more likely to be young in particular (15 – 24 years of age). ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be female in E & SE Asia and the Pacific, but more likely to be male in South Asia ▪ Refrigeration is more common in urban areas (longer storage of perishables). ▪ Urban areas have a greater diversity of markets, including supermarkets and wet markets, and demand for convenience is more prominent. ▪ Purchasing food, especially highly processed food, is more common in urban areas. ▪ Less land and lower water quality for urban homestead food production ▪ More exposure to advertising and/or more susceptible to advertising in urban areas ▪ More sedentary behavior in urban areas. ▪ Eating out is more common in urban areas.
  4. 4. Urban areas have relatively more people of prime working age
  5. 5. Differences in urban and rural food systems/environments mean that different interventions will be required ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be of prime working age in general and more likely to be young in particular (15 – 24 years of age). ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be female in E & SE Asia and the Pacific, but more likely to be male in South Asia ▪ Refrigeration is more common in urban areas (longer storage of perishables). ▪ Urban areas have a greater diversity of markets, including supermarkets and wet markets, and demand for convenience is more prominent. ▪ Purchasing food, especially highly processed food, is more common in urban areas. ▪ Less land and lower water quality for urban homestead food production ▪ More exposure to advertising and/or more susceptible to advertising in urban areas ▪ More sedentary behavior in urban areas. ▪ Eating out is more common in urban areas.
  6. 6. Urban areas in South Asia have relatively more males, but elsewhere in the region females are more common Sex ratio is defined as number of females to number of males
  7. 7. Differences in urban and rural food systems/environments mean that different interventions will be required ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be of prime working age in general and more likely to be young in particular (15 – 24 years of age). ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be female in E & SE Asia and the Pacific, but more likely to be male in South Asia ▪ Refrigeration is more common in urban areas (longer storage of perishables). ▪ Urban areas have a greater diversity of markets, including supermarkets and wet markets, and demand for convenience is more prominent. ▪ Purchasing food, especially highly processed food, is more common in urban areas. ▪ Less land and lower water quality for urban homestead food production ▪ More exposure to advertising and/or more susceptible to advertising in urban areas ▪ More sedentary behavior in urban areas. ▪ Eating out is more common in urban areas.
  8. 8. Refrigeration is more common in urban areas
  9. 9. Differences in urban and rural food systems/environments mean that different interventions will be required ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be of prime working age in general and more likely to be young in particular (15 – 24 years of age). ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be female in E & SE Asia and the Pacific, but more likely to be male in South Asia ▪ Refrigeration is more common in urban areas (longer storage of perishables). ▪ Urban areas have a greater diversity of markets, including supermarkets and wet markets, and demand for convenience is more prominent. ▪ Purchasing food, especially highly processed food, is more common in urban areas. ▪ Less land and lower water quality for urban homestead food production ▪ More exposure to advertising and/or more susceptible to advertising in urban areas ▪ More sedentary behavior in urban areas. ▪ Eating out is more common in urban areas.
  10. 10. Urban residents purchase more highly processed foods and grow less of their own food
  11. 11. Differences in urban and rural food systems/environments mean that different interventions will be required ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be of prime working age in general and more likely to be young in particular (15 – 24 years of age). ▪ Urban residents are more likely to be female in E & SE Asia and the Pacific, but more likely to be male in South Asia ▪ Refrigeration is more common in urban areas (longer storage of perishables). ▪ Urban areas have a greater diversity of markets, including supermarkets and wet markets, and demand for convenience is more prominent. ▪ Purchasing food, especially highly processed food, is more common in urban areas. ▪ Less land and lower water quality for urban homestead food production ▪ More exposure to advertising and/or more susceptible to advertising in urban areas ▪ More sedentary behavior in urban areas. ▪ Eating out is more common in urban areas.
  12. 12. Urban residents consume more food prepared outside the home
  13. 13. Stunting is a problem in urban areas as well as in rural areas
  14. 14. Importance of economic growth for eradicating undernutrition
  15. 15. Economic growth must reach the poor
  16. 16. Obesity is increasing over time in the Asia- Pacific region
  17. 17. Obesity is more prevalent in urban areas in Asian developing countries
  18. 18. Stunting in the urban bottom quintile is often more prevalent than in the rural bottom quintile
  19. 19. International trade in food is expanding rapidly … Annual average value of international trade in food, adjusted for inflation
  20. 20. … but domestic food production is dominant in most countries Percent of dietary energy (calories) from domestic sources
  21. 21. … but domestic food production is dominant in most countries Percent of dietary energy (calories) from domestic sources
  22. 22. Domestic food safety systems need to be prioritized
  23. 23. Crop and product diversification will be important for good nutrition

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