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Stakeholder Consultation on Using experiential learning methods & tools to strengthen community water management

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Stakeholder Consultation on Using experiential learning methods & tools to strengthen community water management

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Thomas Falk, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Pratiti Priyadarshini, Subrata Singh, and Rajesh Mittal. 2022. Social Learning in Games: Stimulating institutional and Behavior Change in Relation to Water Use in India.

PowerPoint presentation given during Stakeholder Consultation with Agriculture Department Bureaucrats from Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, India, 4pm IST, August 4, 2022 (virtual).

Thomas Falk, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Pratiti Priyadarshini, Subrata Singh, and Rajesh Mittal. 2022. Social Learning in Games: Stimulating institutional and Behavior Change in Relation to Water Use in India.

PowerPoint presentation given during Stakeholder Consultation with Agriculture Department Bureaucrats from Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, India, 4pm IST, August 4, 2022 (virtual).

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Stakeholder Consultation on Using experiential learning methods & tools to strengthen community water management

  1. 1. Stakeholder Consultation on Using experiential learning methods & tools to strengthen community water management
  2. 2. • 13th most water stressed country in the world. • 60% of irrigated agriculture & 85% of drinking water supplies dependent on groundwater. • 70% of water resources is contaminated. • Water rights attached to land rights. • Rural-urban inequities; socio-economic inequities within the village. Context
  3. 3. Opportunities Political commitment Acts, policies & judicial pronouncements Programme architecture Funds Available
  4. 4. Water as Commons • High subtractability and low excludability • Multiple users and uses (multiple decision makers) • Multiple resource systems • Upstream & downstream interactions
  5. 5. • High investments on improving surface water supply, but many communities fail to sustain the benefits over time. • Water easily depletes if there is no effective coordination among users to ensure provision and regulate withdrawals. • Blueprint rules introduced in a top-down manner have not made much impact. • Research & practice demonstrates that self-governance by communities can be very effective for sustainable management of water and other shared natural resources. But examples of such efforts are limited and diffused. What are the innovations we need to bring about to improve water management?
  6. 6. Social Learning in Games: Stimulating Institutional and Behavior Change in Relation to Water Use in India Thomas Falk, Ruth Meinzen-Dick Pratiti Priyadarshini, Subrata Singh, Rajesh Mittal
  7. 7. Water as Commons Water as commons: • One person’s use reduces availability for others • Low excludability, boundaries difficult to establish • Fugitive resource—hard to see where it goes Further challenges of groundwater: • Low visibility • Lack of understanding of resource dynamics • Difficult to identify aquifer boundaries, esp. in hard rock • “Traditional knowledge” insufficient with rapidly developing pumping technology • State regulation not enough Need for collective action to manage the resource
  8. 8. Community water management • Technical tools to improve understanding of water resources, but what motivation to use them? • Community water management programs often not sustained • Social innovations • From “teaching” to “social learning”
  9. 9. Experiential Learning • Can games be used to strengthen collective resource management? • Offer safe environment to experience shared challenge • Simulate several seasons in short time • Encourage discussion of situation • Try different institutional arrangements (Rules) • Shape “mental models” and understanding of relationships (biophysical and social) Requires understanding of behavior
  10. 10. Games + Tools Community Rules (Surface & GW) Groundwater Use Groundwater Levels Prices Government Policy Watershed Management Programs Maintenance of Surface Structures Groundwater Recharge Rainfall Community Understanding
  11. 11. Groundwater game • Groups of 5 men or women (separately) • Choose crop • A takes 1 unit water, gives 2 units money • B takes 2 units water, gives 3 units money • 2 units (total) for domestic water • 7 units recharge • See effect on water table over multiple “years” • First set of rounds: no communication, individual choice • Second set of rounds: communication allowed
  12. 12. Community Debriefing • Full village invited • Basics of game described • Share general game results • No specifics about individuals • Small group discussions led by game participants • Engage community in discussions about: How this relates to own experiences and challenges farming Lessons and insights participants gained from the experience Possible solutions
  13. 13. • Players individually decide on contributions to dam maintenance; • Benefits from dam depend on total investment of all group members; • Dam benefit equally distributed amongst all players; OR in sequential order • Community debriefing. Net return per ha in INR Water requirement per ha in cum Wheat 15000 5500 Gram 13000 3000 Surface Water Game
  14. 14. Outcomes of Games Game States Year # habitations Outcomes Groundwater pilot Andhra Pradesh 2013, 2014 17 Some effect on attitudes Communities more likely to adopt water registers & rules for groundwater * Surface water Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh 2016 2017 30 60 Communities more likely brought swelling water conflicts to the table and engaged in dam maintenance activities * Groundwater expansion Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh 2014- 2019 214 Total 3747 farmers adopted less water consumptive crops or varieties and irrigation scheduling to save water** *Compared to randomly selected control communities where game has no been played **Compared to farmers’ reported behavior, prior to the games Taken from India to Ethiopia and Ghana starting in 2021
  15. 15. • As part of the Scaling up Experiential Learning Tools for Sustainable Water Governance in India, we plan to rollout the experiential learning package in the five states directly and indirectly through partner organizations between 2020 and 2023. • Between 2020 and 2022 we rolled out the full package of experiential learning tools in 926 communities directly and 651 communities indirectly
  16. 16. Rajasthan Semi-arid, Dark Zone, agro- pastoralist communities, mixed farming - Reservation of surface water sources for livestock drinking & for groundwater recharge - Ban on drilling of borewells - Sharing water from wells - No use of soap/detergent in water sources reserved for livestock AP & Karnataka Drought prone, erosion of traditional tank management systems, intensive agriculture - Revival of traditional neeruganti system of tank management - No encroachment of tanks & feeder channels - Focus on groundwater recharge - Crop decisions based on water levels (crop holidays during severe drought years) MP & Odisha Forest dominated, degraded uplands resulting in siltation & drying of streams, agriculture and forest dependent tribal communities - Fishing rights for traditional fisher folks - Community contribution for de-siltation of channels - Rules regarding opening/closing of gates of Stop Dams and for water allocation • Water sharing • De-linking land rights and water rights • Federation to discuss upstream- downstream issues • Evolving decisions based on water numeracy
  17. 17. Importance of follow up tools- Crop Water Budgeting • Demand side water management strategy • CWB helps in the Estimation of total water requirement and water available and help farmers in planning for crops. • Though effective, it’s uptake among communities has been low owing to the technical complexities in estimation. • Our approach to CWB has been to place community at the center (from data collection to estimation and communication) and use it as tool that aids communities in making informed decisions. • CWB tool developed as an easy-to-use Android based application) and generates actionable information • Focuses on conjunctive use of water- both Surface water and Ground water. • Rabi crop planning. Download Android Based Application from https://cwb.fes.org.in/
  18. 18. Crop Water Budgeting – Glimpses of the Process Data collection Estimation of Water availability and Requirement Presentation and Communication of Data to community Revised Estimation based on plans submitted by communities
  19. 19. Data Collection • Rainfall data • Recharge Potential from GEC norms Secondary Data (in-built in app) • Information about surface and ground water sources in kharif and Rabi • Details of Crops grown, irrigation(pumping house, irrigation required etc.) Primary Data Collection through community participation
  20. 20. Estimation: Water Availability vs Water Requirement
  21. 21. Communication and Planning- Crop Water Budgeting Dashboard and Discussion • Prepared & presented before the community • Along with CWB estimation Rainfall pattern, cropping pattern, crop wise irrigation requirement, access to irrigation etc. are included in the dashboard • Help in triggering the discussion around water & crops amongst the community • If there is a deficit in water availability for the present cropping plan, the community members discuss possible crop changes to avert the situation of water deficit. The exercise generates debate and discussion on water as a collective resource and the need for better governance.
  22. 22. Revised Estimation for water usage for Rabi based on community planning
  23. 23. 538 774 300 244 307 99 258 214 627 1062 464 404 395 152 350 405 89 288 165 159 88 53 92 191 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Intercrops (Wheat, Jowar etc.), Mandal, Bhilwara Wheat, Mandal, Bhilwara Cotton- CWB, Yavatmal Cotton+Redgram- CWB, Yavatmal Wheat- CWB, Yavatmal Gram- CWB, Yavatmal Jowar- CWB, Yavatmal Tomato, Chittoor Water Used & saved (Litre/ Kg of Prodcue) Locations & Crops Water Used Before and After Crop Water Budgeting Rabi - 2019-20 Water Saved Water used Before CWB Water used After CWB
  24. 24. Bathinigaripalle, Andhra Pradesh Understanding links between human actions and resource outcomes
  25. 25. Backdrop • Bathnigaripalle is a village in Gurramvandlapalle Panchayat of Peddmanyam Mandal in Annamayya district (erstwhile Chittoor). • Village has 66 households, 550 Acres of total geographical area. • Major sources of livelihood - Agriculture, Livestock, Wage labour, NTFP collection, … • Major crops – Groundnut, Tomato, vegetables • Challenges - frequent droughts, withering of crops due to inadequate rainfall, changing crop profiles, falling income from agriculture • Institutional presence - Bathinigaripalle Vana Samrakshana Samiti
  26. 26. Comprehensive mapping of the bore wells
  27. 27. Involving community to trace the resource usage and dependency using - Trend Line as a tool • Climatic factors • Shifting cropping patterns • Changes in the surface and sub surface water resources • Role of external factors like - Market, Technology, financial considerations • ‘Where did we go wrong’ and “ Way forward”
  28. 28. Using the advanced GIS tools to map Hydrological flows • Recharge zones, discharge zones • Bore wells are close to each other • Securing recharge zones
  29. 29. Water game – a platform for community for collective action • Has made the ground water from invisible resource to visible resource. • An awareness that individual extraction behavior has an impact on the availability of the resource for the rest. • Optimal usage of the resource usage is liked with cropping choices that are made. • An awareness that water as resource has multiple usages – Domestic use, Agriculture, Livestock etc. • A need for a commonly agreed rules for governance the resource. • At the end evolved the idea of “Groundwater as Commons”
  30. 30. Tools for Ecological Threshold: Crop water Budgeting Restoration: Consumption less than recharge, to increase storage and raise groundwater levels Balance and Buffer: Match consumption to recharge to stop depletion. Draw down reserves in dry years and replenish in wet years. Steady Depletion: Manage drawdown of groundwater stocks to increase lifetime and productivity. Race to the Bottom: Uncoordinated scramble. Whoever has deeper well and bigger pump grabs more benefits. Water demand 106,436 Cum Recharge 81,457 Cum. • To know the stock of the resource • Matching the resource availability with the demands on the resource • Reveals the resource status - triggering further action in this case - water balance was showing the “Deficit”. • Collective thinking helps in addressing the larger level issues.
  31. 31. Dash board presentation – Information is key to trigger discussion amongst the community
  32. 32. Water Demand 106,436 CuM. Water Recharge 81,457 CuM. Deficit = 24,979 CuM. Proposed crops Groundnut 37.4 Acres Tomato 9.5 Acres Grown crops Groundnut 30 Acres Tomato 0.5 Acres Water Demand 62,324 CuM. Water Recharge 81,457 CuM. Surplus = 19,133 CuM. Enabling real time scenario planning- for dynamic cropping
  33. 33. Outcome • Evolving the Intervention plans - securing the public investments in regevunating the resources • Farmers are encouraged to adopting package of practices, water saving technologies, natural farming practices etc. Evolved rules Minimizing the Paddy crop area under borewells Prohibiting the extraction of water from surface water bodies that cater to needs of the livestock. Informed Crop choice should be decided collectively Moratorium on digging new Bore wells.
  34. 34. Thank you
  35. 35. Suitability tool
  36. 36. Resources • Project website:https://www.ifpri.org/project/scaling- experiential-learning-tools-sustainable-water-governance-india • Commoning the Commons: A Sourcebook to Strengthen Management and Governance of Water as Commons https://fes.org.in/resources/sourcebooks,manuals,atlases-&- ecoprofiles/manuals/strengthening_governance_and_managem ent_of_water_as_commons.pdf • Meinzen-Dick, R., M. Janssen, S. Kandikuppa, R. Chaturvedi, K. Rao and S. Theis. 2018. Playing Games to Save Water: Collective Action Games for Groundwater Management in Andhra Pradesh, India. World Development 107(July):40-53. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X1 8300445 • Falk, T., Kumar, S., Srigiri, S., 2019. Experimental games for developing institutional capacity to manage common water infrastructure in India, Agricultural Water Management. 221: 260–269 • HTTP://GAMESFORSUSTAINABILITY.ORG/PRACTITIONERS/ • http://g amesforsustainability.org/2015/12/05/groundwater-game- for-practitioners/ • https://gamesforsustainability.org/practitioners/#game- on-managing-check-dams
  37. 37. Thank you

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