Rebuilding after Natural Disasters: Lessons from the Aceh Tsunami and Yogyakarta Earthquake


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Budy P. Resosudarmo
Australian National University

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Rebuilding after Natural Disasters: Lessons from the Aceh Tsunami and Yogyakarta Earthquake

  1. 1. Rebuilding after Natural Disasters: Lessons from the Aceh Tsunami and Yogyakarta Earthquake<br />Budy P. Resosudarmo<br />
  2. 2. 8 am, 26 December 2004<br />death toll of 167,000 people<br />500,000 displaced persons<br />loss of over 110,000 houses and 2,000 school buildings<br />Aceh Tsunami<br />
  3. 3. 6am. 27 May 2006<br />death toll of 5,700 people<br />37,900 were injured<br />1,000,000 homeless<br />loss of over 156,700 houses and 2,200 school buildings<br />Yogyakarta Earthquake<br />
  4. 4. Planning and the Management of Rebuilding<br />The goal: Building better<br />Master plan<br />Aceh: Initially top-down, but more relax later on<br />Took about 5 months<br />Lack of local government ownership<br />Resistance from local people<br />More difficult exit strategy<br />Yogyakarta: Bottom-up / more relax<br />Took about 2 months<br />Management of rebuilding<br />Aceh: BRR  coordination, later on developer <br />Lack of solid local government and conflict<br />Issues of accountability<br />Victim of dissatisfaction<br />Yogyakarta: Local government  coordination<br />
  5. 5. Aceh: <br />Early period: strong emphasis on housing<br />Longer stay in temporary shelters<br />Delaying the process of livelihood recovery<br />Sequence of Rebuilding<br />Yogyakarta:<br />Livelihood recovery was conducted at the same time as building houses<br />Within a year, 85% of enterprises have resumed their operations<br /> ( important research topic: resilience and adaptation)<br />Shorter stay in temporary shelters<br />Relatively quick recovery of livelihood<br />
  6. 6. Input Prices and Management<br />Lower local supplies, higher demand of materials and labour, as well as influx of large money supply  increasing costs of living, housing and infrastructures<br />Lessons<br />Aceh: Ensuring the economy is open<br />Special regulations on material imports<br />Establishing peace and allowing massive movement of goods and labour from neighbouring regions<br />Yogyakarta: Domestic provision of materials<br />Provision of materials is part of livelihood recovery support brick factories and wood building materials<br />Possible adjustments on cost estimation / supports<br />
  7. 7. Cash vs In-kind<br />Aceh: mostly in-kind (houses and boats) <br />Certainty that houses were built / boats were provided<br />Relatively protected from price fluctuations<br />Time delay in receiving support<br />Dissatisfaction on house specifications <br />Yogya: mostly cash<br />Uncertainty on the use of the cash<br />Sensitive to price fluctuations<br />Faster distribution of support<br />Dissatisfaction on the size of compensation<br />
  8. 8. Managing Expectations<br />High expectations  Dissatisfaction / social unrest  Unsmooth process of rebuilding<br />Announcement of building better<br />Ambitious plan: schedule/quantity and quality<br />Aceh: 92,000 houses in 2006 or 108,000 houses by end of 2006  too ambitious<br />Arrival of large-scale support<br />Warning people that reconstruction takes time<br />Socialization on relative variations of quality<br />Improve living conditions in shelters<br />
  9. 9. Donor Commitments and Exit Strategy<br />Donor commitments:<br />Commitments may not materialize in a timely manner<br />May not translate into actual flow of funds<br />Amount spent on the ground vs for donors’ own administration<br />Domestic capacity to absorb aid<br />Effective communications with donors<br />Exit strategy<br />No exit strategy can lead to:<br />A big shock to the local economy<br />Sudden huge responsibility to local governments<br />Gradual exit and involvement of local people since the beginning of rebuilding<br />
  10. 10. After Rebuilding<br />Better livelihood <br />New house<br />New Market<br />New school<br />