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Overweight and obesity problem: Overweight and obesity trends

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Anna Lartey
IFPRI-FAO conference, "Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition"
November 28–30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Overweight and obesity problem: Overweight and obesity trends

  1. 1. Overweight and Obesity problem Overweight and Obesity trends Anna Lartey Director of Nutrition FAO, Rome 29 November, 2018
  2. 2. Outline ▪ The Overweight-obesity situation - Adults - Children ▪ Conceptual factors driving the obesity situation ▪ Impact on global burden of disease ▪ Global opportunities to reform the food systems for healthy diets ▪ Key messages
  3. 3. The Problem * 1980 - 857 million persons were overweight or obese * 2018 - 2.1 billion persons are overweight or obese • Unhealthy diets, now fueling the current obesity pandemic and increasingly NCDs has turned out to be the biggest cause of disease and death for humans in the 21st century. If significant transformation is not made in our current food systems, this would be the first in human history when the next generation would have shorter life expectancy than their parents (Gostin, 2018).
  4. 4. Chronic child malnutrition (stunting) continues to fall and more infants are being exclusively breastfed in their first 6 months of life However, rates of adult obesity and anaemia in women of reproductive age are increasing 3 / 11
  5. 5. Global prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥25) and obesity (BMI ≥30) (among adults aged 18 years and over, 1990-2016 25.3 27.4 29.7 32.2 35.1 38.0 38.5 27.9 29.7 31.7 33.9 36.3 38.7 39.2 4.8 5.7 6.7 7.8 9.2 10.8 11.1 8.6 9.5 10.6 11.8 13.2 14.7 15.1 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Prevalence% Overweight Men Overweight Women Obesity Men Obesity Women Source: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration / GNR2018
  6. 6. Prevalence of (A) overweight (BMI ≥25) and (B) obesity (BMI ≥30) among adults aged 18 years and over by region, 2016 28 59 72 30 64 66 43 60 63 30 53 59 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Africa LAC N America Asia Europe Oceania PEVALENCE(%) Men Women A=Overweight 8 20 35 6 22 27 19 28 36 9 23 29 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Africa LAC N America Asia Europe Oceania PEVALENCE(%) Men Women B= Obesity Source: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, WHO Global Health Observatory / GNR2018
  7. 7. Children and Adolescents are not spared
  8. 8. Children under 5 affected by overweight, 1990–2016 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 17 15 14 14 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 MILLIONSOFCHILDREN Africa Asia LAC Oceania Source: UNICEF / WHO / World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates / GNR2018
  9. 9. Trends in child and adolescent obesity, ages 5 to 19 years 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% 16.0% - 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Boys obese # Girls obese # Girls obesity rate % Boys obesity rate % Mens obesity rate % Womens obesity rate % Source: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration / GNR2018 Millions
  10. 10. Conceptual factors driving the obesity epidemic are many
  11. 11. Food System Production, processing, retail, consumption , disposal Food Environment Availability, access, convenience, desirability for consumers Individual Diet Quality Diversity, adequacy, safety HEALTHY DIETS ARE NOT THE DEFAULT Food environments are shaped by food systems Source: Meerman 2015
  12. 12. Today’s Food Environments do not enable healthy choices One bottle of SSB at $0.20 Medium size watermelon $2 to $3.00
  13. 13. Trends in per capita sales volumes of non-alcoholic beverages, processed foods and ultra-processed foods by country income group, 2000–2015 Global panel 2016
  14. 14. Evolving Food Environments: Impact of Supermarkets on people’s BMI and risk of NR- NCD in Kenya Source: Demmler et al. PLOS ONE 2017
  15. 15. Evolving Food Environments: Impact of Supermarkets on people’s BMI and risk of NR- NCD in Kenya Source: Demmler et al. PLOS ONE 2017
  16. 16. Food Price indices by food group for India , 1970-2016 (Source: UNSCN News 42) (Source: H Bouis, 2017)
  17. 17. Postpartum maternal weight change among women in 6 sites from the MGRS Median postpartum maternal BMI patterns by site Onyango et al. MCN 2011
  18. 18. Maternal postpartum maternal weight change relative to day 14 by site Postpartum maternal weight change among women in 6 sites from the MGRS Onyango et al. MCN 2011
  19. 19. Global risk factors contributing to early deaths (Source: GBD 2013; Lancet 2015)
  20. 20. Global Opportunities to Reform the food systems for Healthy Diets
  21. 21. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: “we pledge to leave no one behind” Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being of all at all ages
  22. 22. Aim: To accelerate implementation of ICN2 commitments, achieve Global Nutrition and Diet-related NCD targets by 2025, and contribute to the realization of the SDGs by 2030 • The Nutrition Decade is for everybody • An opportunity to build momentum to fight all forms of malnutrition • A time for all stakeholders to take ACTION • A unique opportunity to work together to end malnutrition in all its forms
  23. 23. IF THE NUTRITION DECADE OF ACTION IS TO BE REALIZED, FOOD SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION IS NOT OPTIONAL Use Food Based Dietary Guidelines to anchor multisectoral policy action INCREASE SUPPLY OF NUTRIENT DENSE FOODS FOR HEALTHY FOOD ENVIRONMENTS Diversify agricultural production via shifts in investment and agendas Regulate advertising to reduce misleading claims Taxes and other industry [dis]incentives to create healthier products Leverage links between food systems, climate change, and diets Empower consumers to make healthy diet choices through mandatory nutrition labeling, nutrition education More data on food availability, affordability, and individual level consumption Empower women to create positive change for themselves
  24. 24. ▪ Overweight and obesity prevalence is increasing in all regions of the world; ▪ Poor diets are now the underlying factors contributing to obesity and its associated non-communicable diseases; ▪ Food systems transformation to improve access to healthy diets for all is key to addressing the rising obesity prevalence; ▪ The UN Decade of Action on Nutrition and the Sustainable Development Goals provide global opportunities within which to quickly act. Key messages

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