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Nesma Mamdouh (CAPMAS) •2019 IFPRI Egypt - NNC Seminar: "100 million healthy lives"

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As part of the IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with the National Nutrition Committee (ASRT affiliated): "100 million healthy lives: Scientific evidence on the double burden of malnutrition in Egypt"

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Nesma Mamdouh (CAPMAS) •2019 IFPRI Egypt - NNC Seminar: "100 million healthy lives"

  1. 1. Malnutrition Among Children Prepared by CAPMAS Under Supervision of Dr. Heba El-Laithy
  2. 2. Introduction 1. Malnutrition is one of the factors that has a negative impact on societies. 2. Which means that healthy nutrition is the basis of health and development, healthy children learn better than others, healthy people increase their productivity and their ability to get out of poverty. 3. Hence, the role of the country, such as ministries and agencies or civil society organizations, are interested in the situation of malnutrition. Ministry of Health 100 million Healthy Lives Ministry of Education 4. Since CAPMAS is the main source of data Egypt, CAPMAS is always seeking to build capacity and develop research to monitor and analyze all issues facing the society
  3. 3. Introduction HIECS survey Poverty Food Security Survey monitoring malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months. Child Mortality
  4. 4. • Sampling • Reference Period HIECS survey
  5. 5. The sample size is 26000 household 45% represents the percentage of households in urban regions, while 55% represents the percentage of households in rural regions. Sampling 1. Methodology Household Income Expenditure Consumption Survey
  6. 6.  The sample was divided into 26 weeks, including the first and second quarters.  The third & fourth quarters: keep track of the same households, previously considered in the first & second quarters, respectively.  Taking all the children in the HHs of the sample that were visited in the first and second quarters of the age between 6 - 59 months to measure the weight and height of these children, as well as the questions were placed on child mortality in 2017/2018 1. Methodology Reference Period Household Income Expenditure Consumption Survey
  7. 7. Indicators of nutritional status in children Child nutrition indicators are one of the most important indicators that measure the utilization of food security, which is the main determinant of child health and development. Lack of food, unbalanced food, and chronic childhood illnesses are associated with poor nutritional status among children.
  8. 8. Snapshots of the Household Access to Food 2015 HIECS
  9. 9. Average Calorie Intake 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Cairo Alexandria PortSaid Suez Damietta Dakahlia Sharkia Qualiobia KafrelSheikh Garbeyya Menoufia Beheira Ismailia Giza BaniSuef Fayoum Menia Assiut Sohag Qena Aswan luxor FrontierGovs Total Kcal/person/day Fig 5.1: Average Per Capita Daily Energy Intake -2015 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Cairo Alexandria PortSaid Suez Damietta Dakahlia Sharkia Qualiobia KafrelSheikh Garbeyya Menoufia Beheira Ismailia Giza BaniSuef Fayoum Menia Assiut Sohag Qena Aswan luxor FrontierGovs Total %ofpopulation Fig 5.2: Prevelance of Daily Per Capita Energy Deficit - 2015 Urban Govs Lower Urban Lower Rural Upper Urban Upper Rural Frontier Urban Frontier Rural FIG 5.3: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION SUFFERING CALORIE DIFICIENCY • The minimum daily per capita intake in Egypt is on average 2,462 Kcal/per person/day. • 16.3 percent of the population do not meet their minimum daily energy in-take (14.5 million), • The energy gap increases notably in Upper Egypt, affecting 70% of the population in Qena, about 61% of the population in Sohag and 58.6% in Aswan • 65% of the population suffering calorie deficiency are found in Upper Egypt
  10. 10. Contribution of National Food Subsidy Program to Household Calorie Consumption 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Cairo Alexandria PortSaid Suez Damietta Dakahlia Sharkia Qualiobia KafrelSheikh Garbeyya Menoufia Beheira Ismailia Giza BaniSuef Fayoum Menia Assiut Sohag Qena Aswan luxor Frontiers AllEgypt %oftotalcalorieintake Fig 5.12: Contribution of Food Subsidy Programme to Total Calorie Intake, 2015 % calorie intake from ration cards % of calorie intake from subsidized bread Region 2015 Pov Rates SC1: 100% removal of Subsidy SC2: Removal of Richest 50% Urban Govs 15.11 18.25 15.93 Urban Lower 9.67 12.74 9.90 Rural Lower 19.71 25.27 20.13 Urban Upper 27.40 31.77 27.58 Rural Upper 56.70 61.87 57.30 Urban Frontier 19.27 22.04 19.95 Rural Frontier 28.95 37.64 30.66 Total 27.76 32.33 28.26 Table 5: Impact of Food Subsidy Reforms on Income Poverty
  11. 11. Dietary Diversity 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% Cairo Alexandria PortSaid Suez Damietta Dakahlia Sharkia Qualiobia KafrelSheikh Garbeyya Menoufia Beheira Ismailia Giza BaniSuef Fayoum Menia Assiut Sohag Qena Aswan luxor Frontiers AllEgypt %ofHouseholds Fig 5.4: Household Dietary Diversity, 2015 Poor Moderate Upper Rural Lower Rural Urban Govs • Nationally 18.8% of the population are estimated to have poor dietary diversity, the majority (56.2%) in Upper Egypt, followed by Urban Governorates (19.5%) • Nearly 50% of the population in Sohag and Assuit have poor food diets Distribution of Population with Poor Dietary Diversity
  12. 12. Malnutrition amongst children Stunting and obesity tend to be higher in Urban areas, reaching 18.4% and 13.7% respectively, compared to 15.2% and 7.7% in rural areas. 4.7% of households have stunted children and children with obesity in the same household
  13. 13. Stunting According to the Rate of Overcrowding 15.4 20.8 16.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 Two individuals or less per room More that two individuals per room Total  Children of overcrowded households are the most vulnerable to stunting.  20.8% of the children who live in overcrowded HHs (more than two individuals in the room) suffer from Stunting , while 15.4% of stunting children live in lower overcrowding HHs
  14. 14. Stunting According to have a Sanitation 15.3 17 16.2 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 Sanitation No Sanitation Total  17% of children suffer from stunting, live in households do not have a sanitation , while 15.3% of them, live in Households do have a sanitation
  15. 15. Stunting According to Monetary Poverty 18.5 15.3 16.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Poor Non Poor Total  Monetary poverty is linked to child malnutrition. 18.5% of children in poor households suffer from stunting, compared with 15.3% of children in non-poor households
  16. 16. LOOK FORWARD • Collect heights and weights for women. • You are welcome for any suggestion about adding questions to HIECS Questionnaire

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