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Mohamed Kassem (ARC) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and options for improvements"


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As part of the seminar held by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) under the title of "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and options for improvements".

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Mohamed Kassem (ARC) • 2019 IFPRI Egypt Seminar "Fertilizer policy in Egypt and options for improvements"

  1. 1. Agricultural Extension insights into Fertilizers’ System Prof. Mohamed H. Kassem International Consultant Director, IC4D Unit, AERDRI, ARC
  2. 2. The Extension System problem • The critical obstacles are the decline in both budget and field staff. • According to the government current situation, it is expected that neither the extension budget will be supported, nor new staff will be recruited. The problem then is "How can public extension fulfill its goals with a very limited budget and core staff?" • The government trend to solve such a strategic problem is the PPP (P3s), or the Public-Private-Partnership. • The PPP is not privatization; it is more like sharing what we all have to get the best for everyone.
  3. 3. Public-Private Partnerships By definition a partnership, involves two or more parties committed to a common goal, sharing risk and yielding a reward to all the partners. A PPP is a project in which there is cooperation between the public and private sectors in one or more areas of the design, development, construction, operation, ownership or financing of infrastructure assets, or in the provision of services. The ministry is working now on that issue in parallel to reviewing the agricultural strategy 2030. One of the scenarios of PPP in extension can be: • All field activities would be implemented by the private sector, NGOs, freelance agents and technology brokers. • Governmental extension would keep the functions of planning national programs, contracting and licensing, monitoring, training, authorizing and certifying, good practice provision, and extension knowledge management. • The budget source varies according to the objectives of extension activities, the source can be the government, the private sector, NGOs, COs or the customer. _ California Debt & Investment Advisory Commission (CDIAC), Privatization vs. Public-Private Partnerships: a comparative analysis, ISSUE BRIEF, CDIAC #07-04, (August 2007)
  4. 4. Expansion of Extension concept Recent changes in extension environment suggest that: • It is not only for farmers, but also for all value chain players including the customer • Extension should aim to widen value chain player’s choice to access valid and concurrent knowledge • It is not only an educational system, but it includes also communication, innovation and problem solving • It is not only for information dissemination, but also for knowledge sharing and management • It is not only for good practices, but also for optimized agriculture • It is not only for raising production, but also for clean sustainable agriculture • It is not only a public service, but also a profitable service
  5. 5. Fertilizers from extension perspective • Somehow Fertilization, irrigation and plant protection should be treated as one package • They share the accumulating effects on human and environment • Farmers see them as a source of high risk. • This is why farmers try to overuse/overdose them. • Farmers are not the only responsible players of the fertilizer overuse/overdose. Input suppliers and market players support farmers’ fear. • PPP is a part of the problem and the solution
  6. 6. Potential solutions for fertilizers’ problem • All players of the value chain should be addressed by Extension. • Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Crop Management is the best approach to convince farmers and revive crop rotation. • Alternative fertilizers should be advocated, and new innovative Fertilizer mixes can be introduced. • Input suppliers’ recommendations should be closely monitored. • Introduce precise agriculture innovations • Strengthen farmers organizations (coops and contractual agriculture) • Customer awareness to enhance using bio-products
  7. 7. Thank you