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Making Myanmar's Land Use Regulatory Framework More Nutrition-Sensitive


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Kyaw Swa Lin
IFPRI-FAO conference side event, "Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition"
November 28–30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Making Myanmar's Land Use Regulatory Framework More Nutrition-Sensitive

  1. 1. Making Myanmar’s land use regulatory framework more nutrition sensitive U Kyaw Swe Lin – Director General DoP/MoALI IFPRI-FAO Global Event on Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition Bangkok, November 28-30, 2018
  2. 2. Diversification of agriculture underpins dietary diversity and nutrition SMALLHOLDER DIVERSIFICATION AGRICULTURE Rice, pulses, edible oils, vegetables, fruits, fish, livestock, ducks, pigs, poultry, high value cash crops (cardamom, ginger, chillie coffee, moringa), fodder, NTFP, non cultivated food stuffs, tanaka, FOOD AVAILABILITY at HOUSEHOLD AND LOCAL MARKET STABLE AND RISK ADJUSTED HOUSEHOLD INCOME ACCESS TO DIVERSIFIED FOOD BASKET – 900US$/HH DIETARY DIVERSITY ENABLING ENVIRONMENT LAND ACCESS TENURE SECURITY INPUTS + SERVICES E X T E N S I O N NUTRITION EDUCATION ?
  3. 3. Challenges in the Enabling Environment: Land Tenure framework does not support diversification • Formal land titling is required to secure tenure and to access different services including seasonal credit, land consolidation and mechanisation, access to projects; • Land titling is land use specific and conditional, focusing on rice and edible oil self sufficiency, and export of beans/pulses; • Land use conversions of titled land are cumbersome impeding the free choice of crops and production systems that may be much more nutrition sensitive and dense than staple crops; • Land services are rice/annual crop centred ; +90% of paddy fields are titled but – 50% of “other lands ”, especially customary lands in ethnic states such as Chin, Shan and Kachin where high levels of stunting prevail; • Secure access to land is not provided for many nutrition sensitive agricultural production systems which are not regarded as “farmland”: agro-forestry, livestock, aquaculture, home gardens;
  4. 4. National Land Use Policy (NLUP) Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS) Multi Sector National Plan of Action Nutrition • National Land Use Policy endorsed addressing FNS tenure challenges • National Land Use Council created with Working Committees • Law/regulatory revision roadmap drafted • 16-action point FSN senstive land component and investment plan for transformation with tenure indicators • GAFSP approved with land admin support • Prioritization and targeting of FSN senstive land tenure interventions • Draft EU nutrition support programme to fund these interventions How GoM aims to address these bottlenecks?• Assessment, evidence and ToC: FIRST diagnostic; EU budget support design • Institutional capacity building: Department of Planning on nutrition (MoALI ); National Land Use Council; • Consultation & Engagement : Subnational ADS and MS-NPAN; • Network strengthening and coordination: Intra sector (different MoALI departments), inter sector (NNC and SUN; civil society); Sector coordination groups TOOLSPROCESSOUTCOMES
  5. 5. Case 1: Land and aquaculture under MS-NPAN • Fish accounts for 60% of animal protein in Myanmar; 30% of fish production comes from aquaculture; aquaculture generates much higher earnings and creates more employment opportunities than crop farming; • MS-NPAN recognizes the potential contribution of smallholder aquaculture to increase fish protein availability and farmer´s income, especially for the poorest wealth quintiles; • Current land legislation constrains the conversion of rice land into rice-fish systems and fishponds; • MoALI - FIRST partnership engages in policy/law reform dialogue as follows: – Facilitating grass roots consultation on the challenges as part of the ADS consultation – Connecting the institutional dots: facilitating dialogue between Fisheries and Land Administration Departments using different platforms – Establishing workable partnership between different DP investments in the aquaculture sector (EU, FAO, GIZ, SDC, WorldFish) to establish a common platform of action on land tenure – Work on a common ToC as part of the nutrition strategy – TA to assess legal framework and suggest short and medium term regulatory changes – Including reform investment in agricultural (ADS) and nutrition (MS-NPAN) programmes • 20MEuro EU-GIZ and 19M$ GEF-FAO investments in aquaculture have included solid law reform activities for achieving the expected outcomes
  6. 6. Case 2: Land allocation to landless households under ADS • Landless rural households are significantly more food insecure, have less dietary diversity, are poorer and spend excessive resources on food purchases; • One third of the estimated 40-60% of landless households need access to land to support their livelihoods; • Landless people face the following FNS challenges: – Little or no food production for own-consumption; – No steady income generation from agricultural commodities; – Seasonal employment only with total annual income well below cost minimum diversified diet – No access to formal loans • A MoALI-LIFT pilot project deals with reclaiming unused VFV land and formally allocate this to landless households with secure land rights, including women headed households; • Results of such pilots feed into ADS and MS-NPAN to deliver land re- allocation programmes at scale; • Multi-donor trust fund (LIFT), development partners, including EU, design investment for service delivery for land re-allocation in support of ADS and MS-NPAN
  7. 7. Way forward – institutional capacity building • Institutions to implement the three national policies/strategies need to be strengthened at national and sub-national level. Priorities include – NLUP: support to NLUC, its Working Committees and subnational Region/State bodies – ADS: strengthening the ADS-Implementation Support Unit as an overall coordination and implementation body; strengthening Department of Planning and its Agricultural Policy Unit; empowering subnational implementation capacity ; Agriculture and Rural Development Sector Coordination Group – MS-NPAN: strengthening intra- and inter-ministerial coordination (MoALI Focal points, SUN network coordination; Nutrition Sector Coordination Group