Food security in Yemen: An Update


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Presentation by Clemens Breisinger, Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) at "Consultative and Planning Workshop for Reactivating National Food Security Strategy", September 18-19 in Sana’a, Yemen.

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Food security in Yemen: An Update

  1. 1. Food security in Yemen: An Update With support from: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Presenter: Clemens Breisinger
  2. 2. Framework and indicators Yemen National Food Security Strategy National food security (Availability) Macroeconomy Key sectors Governance Food imports/foreign exchange earnings Human capacity and productivity Stability, jobs and services Household food security (Access and utilization) Income Food Services Calorie defiency Child stunting Policiesandinterventions Crisesandshocks(Stability) Source: Yemen National Food Security Strategy, simplified version)
  3. 3. Yemen is the most food-insecure Arab country and among the 10 most food insecure countries globally Source: Breisinger et al. 2012. Beyond the Arab Awakening. IFPRI Food Policy Report
  4. 4. Food security at household level is improving again – after a succession of several crises Global food, fuel and financial crises unravel Global food prices rally again Revolution Transition Source: own representation based on data from Central Statistical Organization, Gallup World View, UNICEF and WFP
  5. 5. What explains recent improvements in household food security? • Inflation declined to 9.9 percent from 19.5 percent in 2011 – Appreciation of Yemeni rial to its pre-crisis level – Moderation of international food prices – Easing of supply shortages • Subsidies and public wage bill have increased to 9 percent and 11% of GDP, respectively (which helps households, but is not well targeted and fiscally unsustainable) • Per capita incomes started to rise again in 2012 after the steep fall in 2011 Source: IMF 2013 and MOPIC 2013
  6. 6. Food security at national level is also improving - The role of remittances and ODA is increasing Source: Own representation based on IMF 2013 and MOPIC 2013
  7. 7. Agriculture’s role for food security is stagnating - Cereal imports continue to rise Source: own presentation based on data from IMF 2013 ; FAO 2013; and MOPIC 2013. Note: Numbers for 2013 are estimates.
  8. 8. What keeps growing is qat, both in production and value terms Source: Own representation based on MOPIC and FAOSTAT, various years
  9. 9. What can Yemen learn from Brazil when implementing its National Food Security Strategy?  Highest-level commitment: presidential initiative, ‘right-to-food’ stated in the constitution, and, state accountability.  National strategy coordinates programs from 11 ministries.  Establishment and close collaboration of two secretariats, food and nutrition and social protection.  Targeted, large-scale poverty alleviation program with conditional cash transfers (children’s school attendance and participation in child and maternal healthcare and nutrition programs - ‘Bolsa Familia’)  Large-scale nutrition interventions and investments in drinking water and sanitation infrastructure  Regular process of monitoring and evaluation of progress  Building credibility by promoting transparency of policies and discussions amongst the population Source: Ecker & Nene (2012) – Nutrition Policies in Developing Countries (IFPRI PN).
  10. 10. The basis for Action: NFSS: 7-point Plan
  11. 11. 11 1. Leverage the petroleum subsidy reform to promote food security through direct transfers and investments  Smart transfers to those who need them 6. Better target public investment to the food insecure and improve service provision, especially in rural areas  Restructure public spending and services 7. Launch high-level awareness campaigns for family planning, healthy nutrition, women’s empowerment and qat  Targeted nutrition interventions and women empowerment Improving household-level food security 7-Point Action Plan
  12. 12. Improving national-level food security 7-Point Action Plan: 12 2. Improve the business climate to foster pro-food secure private investments in promising sectors  It’s jobs, jobs, jobs 3. Combine qat reduction policies with support for non-qat agricultural development  Agricultural transformation 4. Improve risk management and enforce competition among cereal importers and consider physical grain storage for emergencies  Food trade revolution 5. Implement the water sector strategy decisively  Water, water, water