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How fish can play a stronger role to achieve globally set goals

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How fish can play a stronger role to achieve globally set goals

  1. 1. How Fish Can Play a Stronger Role to Achieve Globally Set Goals Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted Research Program Leader Value Chains and Nutrition
  2. 2. Fish for Nourishing Nations • Fish – an irreplaceable source of multiple, essential micronutrients, essential fatty acids, especially for the poor • Quality of fish – nutrients and food safety • Small fish; dried small fish • Contribution to recommended nutrient dietary intakes • Fish in the first 1,000 days of life • Fish – uniquely placed to nourish nations and contribute to SDGs, in particular SDG 2
  3. 3. Current Shift in Paradigm Feeding the Billions • Population growth – mouths to feed • Quantity – national primary production • Fish is fish Nourishing Nations • Quality • Who, Why, Which way, When, in Context
  4. 4. Some Benefits of Fish for Nourishing Nations • Diets low in fish and seafood responsible for 1% of the world’s total burden of disease-related disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (Ezzati and Riboli 2013) • Low seafood consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of sub-optimal neuro-developmental outcomes, including cognition and fine motor skills (Hibbeln et al 2007) • Strong association between low stunting and fish intake (strongest of all food groups): 112,553 children aged 6-23 months from 46 countries; children in poor, urban Zambia (Headey et al 2017; Marinda et al 2018) • Fish consumption in U. S. A. is significantly associated with long-term weight loss (Smith et al 2015)
  5. 5. Small fish: Irreplaceable Source of Multiple, Essential, Highly Bioavailable Micronutrients • Minerals: calcium, zinc, iron, selenium, phosphorus, iodine … • Vitamins: B12, A, riboflavin D, E • Essential fatty acids • Animal protein • Minimal cleaning loss and plate waste • High bioavailability of minerals and vitamins in fish (low bioavailability in plant-source foods) • Fish in a meal enhances the low bioavailability of micronutrients in the plant-source foods (e.g. rice, vegetables)
  6. 6. Reevaluating the Unique Contribution of Fish to Micronutrients • Vitamin A 2, Dehydroretinol: 119 - 127% of the biological activity of retinol (La Frano et al 2017) • Iron: Haem iron underestimated by 16%; ICP-MS method (Wheal et al 2016) • Positive interaction: Vitamin A-rich small fish improve iron status in children (Andersen et al 2016)
  7. 7. Contribution (%) of Common Fish Species from Bangladesh to Recommended Nutrient Intake: Vitamin B12 (Thilsted et al 2016) Small indigenous fish species Common aquaculture species pregnant and lactating women infants and young children
  8. 8. Contribution (%) of Common Fish Species from Cambodia to Recommended Nutrient Intake: Iron (Unpublished data 2018) Contributions based on a 50 g serving per day for pregnant women and a 25 g serving per day for children. RNI for iron (WHO, 2004)
  9. 9. Dried Small Fish – Super Food for Nourishment Year-round • Much greater concentration of essential micronutrients • Long shelf life; easy to store; overcomes seasonality • Increases duration / frequency of consumption • Used to make easy-to-eat, easy-to-prepare fish-based products for first 1,000 days of life
  10. 10. Ingredients: 37% dried small fish, 15% oil, 37% onion, 7% garlic, and 4% red chili One heaped tablespoon = 60 g raw fish Fish Chutney for Pregnant and Lactating Women (Bogard et al 2015) Fe, Zn, Ca, Animal protein Energy density, Essential fatty acids Texture and flavour Taste enhancer
  11. 11. Fish Powder for Young Children Preparation of Fish Powder Nutrient composition per 100 gm fish powder Energy Protein Fat Iron Zinc Calcium 317 kcal 19 g 22 g 22 g 4.5 mg 1669 mg Fish powder added to different types of family foods
  12. 12. Food Safety Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) 2014 Call for Action on Food Safety and Anti-microbial Resistance • Pesticides used in fish during drying • Microbes / Parasites • Alfatoxins in fish • Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Cadium
  13. 13. Reduce Fish Waste and Loss to Increase Supply of Micronutrient-rich Fish • Reduce fish used for animal feed • Improve methods for processing and storage • Use fish parts removed in processing, cleaning, cooking and serving A 1% reduction in fish loss in Malawi amounts to 10 kg fish fish/ per person per year
  14. 14. Climate Change and Fish Supply – Reduction in Micronutrients and Essential Fatty Acids • Ocean warming: shift in production of fish and shellfish species from low to high latitudes, potentially reducing catch globally by >6% and by as much as 30% in the tropics by 2050 • Resulting in >10% of the global population facing micronutrient and essential fatty acids deficiencies, driven by fish declines, especially in the tropics (Golden et al 2017) • Rice field fisheries: erratic rains - intensity and duration; longer droughts, rising temperature
  15. 15. Three Action Points • Invest in analyses of nutrient content and food safety of common fish species and fish products and make the data open access. • Invest in the development of well-liked, affordable, nutritious, safe, ready-to-eat, easy-to-prepare fish products for the first 1,000 days of life. • Invest in global and national policies, strategies and research to increase the access of and intake of micronutrient-rich fish species, especially by the poor.
  16. 16. Thank you Nourishing Nations Achieving national targets of the SDGs