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Gender and Climate Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Bangladesh

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Presentation by Agnes Quisumbing, Chiara Kovarik, and Quinn Bernier from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

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Gender and Climate Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Bangladesh

  1. 1. Agnes Quisumbing, Chiara Kovarik*, Quinn Bernier *(c.kovarik@cgiar.org) Gender and Climate Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Bangladesh
  2. 2. Gender and agriculture in Bangladesh • Similar to other parts of South Asia, where patrilineal and patriarchal systems prevail, women in Bangladesh have much lower levels of literacy, schooling, assets, and land than men • As a result of lower education and other assets, women in Bangladesh earn half of what men earn • Production system involves joint (male and female) farming on family farms; women rarely recognized as farmers, and seldom are targeted by extension services
  3. 3. Recognizing women as agricultural producers • Although still lower than men’s, women’s participation in agricultural employment has been increasing. • Women tend to be involved in homestead rather than field crop production. • Women are often more involved in vegetable and small livestock production, because it does not violate social norms of female seclusion Source: BBS, Labour Force Survey, 199/00, 2002/03 and 2005/06
  4. 4. Bangladesh CCAFS sites Two different potential types of water management systems: --Bagerhat: medium saline, less potential for groundwater access; easier to reach, so more diversification options - Satkhira: highly saline but with higher potential for shallow groundwater use due to less salinity intrusion into groundwater; more difficult to reach but borders West Bengal
  5. 5. Men have higher levels of human and physical capital and stronger land rights than women Male Female Signficance level Age 46.15 37.85 *** Years of schooling 4.99 4.41 ** Own assets 42.91 16.56 *** Own livestock 1.06 8.51 *** Own assets as a proportion of total household assets 0.49 0.24 *** Own livestock as a proportion of total household livestock 0.08 0.66 *** Whether owns land 0.61 0.05 *** Whether decisionmaker 0.85 0.40 *** ***significant at 1%, ** significant at 5%, * significant at 10%
  6. 6. Men and women get information from different sources Males Females Significance level Agricultural information sources Government extension services 0.28 0.07 *** Agricultural service providers 0.04 0.00 *** Farmer field days 0.12 0.01 *** Group-based information sources NGO 0.14 0.10 Community meetings 0.03 0.00 *** Farmer orgs, coops, CBOs 0.02 0.01 Informal sources Family members 0.13 0.05 *** Neighbors 0.50 0.81 *** Media, internet, and schools Radio 0.72 0.88 *** Television 0.58 0.32 *** Newspaper/bulletin 0.87 0.55 *** Schools/teacher 0.15 0.04 *** Cell phone 0.02 0.01 Internet 0.02 0.01 Traditional sources Traditional forecasters, indigenous knowledge, etc. 0.55 0.39 0.000
  7. 7. Awareness and adoption of CSA practices with long-term benefits Whether respondent is aware of practice Whether respondent adopted practice in past year if they were aware of it Male Female Sig level Male Female p-value Agroforestry 0.56 0.43 *** 0.08 0.05 Terracing 0.31 0.30 0.20 0.22 Water harvesting 0.27 0.17 *** 0.26 0.11 *** Irrigation 0.97 0.97 0.63 0.53 *** Planting pits 0.06 0.01 *** 0.08 0.20 Minimum tillage 0.30 0.27 0.07 0.03 Improved feed management 0.29 0.26 0.58 0.72 ** Grazing or rangeland management 0.08 0.02 *** 0.08 0.11 Patterns of adoption, conditional on awareness, are consistent with spheres of responsbility (men—agriculture and water control, women—livestock)
  8. 8. Awareness and adoption of CSA practices with short-term benefits Whether respondent is aware of practice Whether respondent adopted practice in past year if they were aware of it Male Female p-value Male Female p-value Applying crop residue 0.56 0.54 0.42 0.40 Composting 0.80 0.71 *** 0.38 0.37 Livestock manure management 0.63 0.61 0.53 0.35 *** More efficient fertilizer use 0.87 0.57 *** 0.84 0.63 *** Improved high yielding varieties 0.61 0.41 *** 0.58 0.44 *** Planting stress-tolerant varieties 0.03 0.02 0.25 0.11 Destocking 0.14 0.02 *** 0.10 0.27 * Cover cropping 0.13 0.09 0.04 0.02 Switch to drought tolerant livestock 0.07 0.02 *** 0.10 0.11 Integrated pest management 0.78 0.63 *** 0.48 0.46
  9. 9. Analyzing adoption of CSA practices, conditional on awareness • Analyzing determinants of adoption needs to take into account selectivity owing to endogeneity of awareness: men and women who are more aware of these technologies may have different characteristics, better access to information, compared to those who don’t • Approach is very similar to Kenya paper that uses a Heckman two- step procedure
  10. 10. Summary of coefficient estimates of awareness of CSA practices with long-term benefits Relationship Variables Practice affected Positive Years of schooling Terracing, irrigation, feed mgt Total assets Agroforestry, min tillage Total livestock Terracing Having title Min tillage Spouse aware Agroforestry, terracing, H2O harvest Group based info Min tillage Relatives/neighbors Agroforestry, irrigation, feed mgt Media, internet, schools Agroforestry, irrigation, feed mgt Traditional sources Agroforestry, terracing, feed mgt Negative Being female Agroforestry, terracing, min tillage, feed mgt Total assets Terracing, H2O harvest Traditional H20 harvest Agricultural information sources do NOT affect awareness at all!
  11. 11. Summary of coefficient estimates of adoption of CSA practices with long-term benefits Relationship Variables Practice affected Positive % livestock Minimum tillage Respondent owns land; gender decisionmaking Agroforestry Farm area; flood impact Water harvesting Makes decisions on plot Terracing, irrigation Crop shock, drought shock Feed management Innovative orientation Terracing, feed management Knowledge about crop, livestock, pest management Water harvesting, irrigation Trust Irrigation Negative Being female Min tillage Schooling Terracing % livestock Agroforestry Flood impact Feed management Gender decisionmaking Water harvesting
  12. 12. Summary of coefficient estimates of awareness of CSA practices with short-term benefits Relationsh ip Variables Practice affected Positive Schooling Crop residue, composting % assets owned Composting Household assets Composting, HYV Livestock Composting, cover crop Spouse aware Crop residue, manure mgt, HYV, destocking Agricultural info source Composting, fertilizer, destocking Group info source HYV, cover crop Relatives and neighbors Crop residue, composting, manure mgt, destocking, cover crop Media, internet, schools Fertilizer, HYV, destocking, cover crop, IPM Traditional sources Composting, HYV, cover crop, IPM Negative Being female Crop residue, composting, fertilizer, HYV, destocking Owns land; traditional Crop residue Spouse aware IPM
  13. 13. Summary of coefficient estimates of adoption of CSA practices with short-term benefits Relationsh ip Variables Practice affected Positive Being female Composting, destocking, cover cropping Schooling Fertilizer use Total assets Manure mgt, cover cropping Farm area Crop residue, composting, manure mgt, fertilizer, destocking, IPM Crop shock Crop residue, destocking, cover cropping Soil erosion Crop residue, composting, manure mgt, fertilizer, HYV Decides on plot Fertilizer, HYV, cover crop Innovative Crop residue, cover crop Extreme event Fertilizer, HYV, destocking Negative % livestock Composting, destocking, cover cropping Owns land Manure mgt, HYV Farm area; female decision Cover cropping
  14. 14. Discussion and policy implications • There are gender gaps in awareness and adoption, but conditional on awareness, gender gaps in adoption are less stark • Implication: improve reach of CSA-related information; improve traditional agricultural extension systems’ messaging, particularly on practices with long-term benefits • Agricultural extension systems need to reach women farmers through better messaging, employment of female extension agents, etc. • Also explore other ways of disseminating information that may be less biased against women: radio, social networks, ICT (phone and internet)
  15. 15. Future analysis – Explore more fully how production systems affect adoption of CSA practices – Explore implications of diversification of production systems from fish to shrimp culture – Explore social capital and institutional factors more – Draw out differences between South Asia and Bangladesh findings—how do culture and context matter for gender differences in CSA adoption? IFPRI Images
  16. 16. Thank you! Questions? Contact Chiara Kovarik: c.kovarik@cgiar.org

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