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Gender and Climate Change: Is
there a Value Proposition?
Claudia Ringler (c.ringler@cgiar.org) based
on the contributions ...
 Is there a link between gender and CC?
 Gender and climatic shocks
 The role of information
 Gender and climate chang...
 Climate change [CC] affects water in all its uses, including
water for agriculture, changing its availability, demand, u...
CC perceptions differ (Ex. Rakai, Uganda)
0 20 40 60 80 100
Any change
Increase in temperature
Decrease in overall rainfal...
 There is a gender gap in what men and women own, and
women’s assets are often sold to cope with climatic
shocks
Generall...
 Climate information, which is essential for adaptation, is
not equally available to men and women
Access to climate info...
Information sources (%, Rakai, Uganda)
Source: IFPRI-CCAFS Uganda household survey.
Sources of Information Women Men
Signi...
 Women have less awareness of and less access to agricultural
technologies that support adaptation
Men are generally more...
Awareness and adoption of CSA practices with
long-term benefits (Bangladesh)
Whether respondent
is aware of practice
Wheth...
 Risk aversion can negatively affect adaptation by rural
women
Men and women who are concerned about risk are less likely...
Climate change and gender in practice
Perceived importance vs
actual practice: gender-
disaggregated data
Bangladesh
(14)
...
• Attention to gender issues is perceived by
practitioners as important during the design and
planning stage of climate ch...
Constraints to Implementing Gender-Sensitive
Adaptation Programs
(1=not a constraint, 3=average constraint, 5=significant ...
 There is a value proposition of reaching out to women and
men farmers on climate change information and appropriate
clim...
Ringler, C., A. Quisumbing, E. Bryan, and R. Meinzen-Dick. (Eds.) 2014. Enhancing Women’s Assets to Manage Risk under Clim...
Resources: Websites & toolkits
• Project website:
http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/
• Project website:
http://climatechan...
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Gender and Climate Change: Is There a Value Proposition?

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IFPRI Policy Seminar “Beijing +20 and Beyond: How Gender Research Is Changing the Landscape of Food Policy” October 14, 2015. Presentation by Claudia Ringler, IFPRI.

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Gender and Climate Change: Is There a Value Proposition?

  1. 1. Gender and Climate Change: Is there a Value Proposition? Claudia Ringler (c.ringler@cgiar.org) based on the contributions of numerous IFPRI and partner researchers and practitioners Beijing +20 & Beyond: How Gender Research is Changing the Landscape of Food Policy / October 14, 2015
  2. 2.  Is there a link between gender and CC?  Gender and climatic shocks  The role of information  Gender and climate change adaptation (or CSA)  Sharing risks is gendered  Climate change and gender in practice  Some concluding thoughts  Resources Outline
  3. 3.  Climate change [CC] affects water in all its uses, including water for agriculture, changing its availability, demand, uses, and generally rendering everything related to climate and water a riskier business  CC raises temperature and likely will increase both floods and droughts; particularly large impacts in tropical countries  Women and men perceive climatic shocks and climate change differently  Women and men have differential needs that are affected by CC and own different types and amounts of assets and have different coping and adaptation mechanisms (f.ex. men own most agricultural assets; women are often responsible for securing domestic water supply but also firewood; care for sick HH members Why think about CC & gender?
  4. 4. CC perceptions differ (Ex. Rakai, Uganda) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Any change Increase in temperature Decrease in overall rainfall More droughts Increase in variability of rainfall Men (n=152) Women (n=180) Source: IFPRI-CCAFS Uganda household survey.
  5. 5.  There is a gender gap in what men and women own, and women’s assets are often sold to cope with climatic shocks Generally men hold most agricultural assets, including land. Thus, most direct adverse impacts from climate change on agriculture affect men. Women’s assets are smaller in value (f.ex. Jewelry and small livestock) and generally have higher liquidity – and are thus might be more readily and easily sold potentially increasing intra-household inequity. Social protection programs should be geared toward protecting women’s assets during climatic shocks. (Quisumbing, Kumar & Behrman 2014; Rakib and Matz 2014). Gender and climatic shocks
  6. 6.  Climate information, which is essential for adaptation, is not equally available to men and women Access to climate information shapes climate change perceptions and responses. Men are more likely to report having access to climate information, particularly from formal sources, such as agricultural extension agents, radio broadcasts and community meetings. To promote equal participation across women and men, information has to reach both women and men. (Beaman & Dillon 2014; Kristjanson et al. 2015). The role of information
  7. 7. Information sources (%, Rakai, Uganda) Source: IFPRI-CCAFS Uganda household survey. Sources of Information Women Men Significant difference Neighbors 91 96 * Radio 86 98 * Traditional forecasters/indigenous knowledge 74 76 Family members 52 72 * Religious groups 36 31 Government extension workers 31 67 * NGOs 31 68 * Community meetings 24 44 * Farmer organizations or cooperatives 12 36 * Agri-service providers 12 40 * Cell phones 6 12 * Farmer field schools 6 12 * Schools/teachers 4 14 * TV 2 14 * Newspaper/bulletin 1 33 * Agricultural shows 1 20 * Internet 0 0
  8. 8.  Women have less awareness of and less access to agricultural technologies that support adaptation Men are generally more aware of CSA practices than women. If women are aware they can be at least as likely to adopt these practices (Twyman 2014; Bernier et al. 2015; Quisumbing et al. 2015) In Mali, irrigation allowed men to increase their value of production almost enough to offset the negative impact of climatic shocks. Women, on the other hand, had limited access to irrigation or other farm technology, such as motorized tillers that would increase productivity (Beaman & Dillon 2014; Dillon & Gill 2014). Spousal awareness can improve main decision-maker awareness of CSA practices (agroforestry, terracing, manure management, destocking, HYV, rainwater harvesting) (Quisumbing et al. 2014). Gender and climate change adaptation
  9. 9. Awareness and adoption of CSA practices with long-term benefits (Bangladesh) Whether respondent is aware of practice Whether respondent adopted practice in past year if they were aware of it Male Female Sig level Male Female p-value Agroforestry 0.56 0.43 *** 0.08 0.05 Terracing 0.31 0.30 0.20 0.22 Water harvesting 0.27 0.17 *** 0.26 0.11 *** Irrigation 0.97 0.97 0.63 0.53 *** Planting pits 0.06 0.01 *** 0.08 0.20 Minimum tillage 0.30 0.27 0.07 0.03 Improved feed management 0.29 0.26 0.58 0.72 ** Grazing or rangeland management 0.08 0.02 *** 0.08 0.11 Patterns of adoption, conditional on awareness, are consistent with spheres of responsibility (men—agriculture and water control, women—livestock) Quisumbing et al. (2015)
  10. 10.  Risk aversion can negatively affect adaptation by rural women Men and women who are concerned about risk are less likely to take up new technologies. We found that women are not more risk averse overall but more risk averse when taking decisions on agriculture. It will be important to understand women’s tolerance for risk and improve their capacity to understand risk. Women value risk sharing, but lower education and financial literacy, as well as less background in understanding agricultural risk placed women at a disadvantage when facing insurance purchase decisions. (Clarke and Kumar, 2015) Female farm managers in Senegal and BFO were less likely to invest in agricultural insurance and instead preferred savings products, possibly because they face important health risks that men do not face. This decision reduced average yields and overall food security. (Delavallade et al. 2015) Sharing risks (Bangladesh)
  11. 11. Climate change and gender in practice Perceived importance vs actual practice: gender- disaggregated data Bangladesh (14) Ethiopia (26) Kenya (36) Mali (11) Do not collect, analyze, or report gender-disaggregated data 25 76 72 59 Collect, analyze, or report data on women, men, girls, and boys in household 41 14 19 15 Collect, analyze, or report data on female-headed households and male-headed households 34 11 9 26 (Ragasa et al. 2014) Knowledge, Attitude and Practitioner Survey on gendered CC adaptation
  12. 12. • Attention to gender issues is perceived by practitioners as important during the design and planning stage of climate change-related activities • But gender issues receive much less attention during implementation and even less during M&E. • Gender-disaggregated data collection, monitoring, and reporting are rarely done as part of their organizations’ climate change–related activities. Climate change and gender in practice (Ragasa et al. 2014) Knowledge, Attitude and Practitioner Survey on gendered CC adaptation
  13. 13. Constraints to Implementing Gender-Sensitive Adaptation Programs (1=not a constraint, 3=average constraint, 5=significant constraint) Source: Bryan et al. CCAFS KAP survey 201 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Availability and/or access to relevant research on gender and climate changed adaptation Social or cultural barriers to women's participation in DM at the HH, communirty, or National level Availability and/or access to gender- disaggregated data Willingness of local gov/communities to involve women projects/programs Availability of financial resources from donors to incentivize gender sensisite programming Capacity of program staff in areas of gender Government Local NGO Int'l NGO average
  14. 14.  There is a value proposition of reaching out to women and men farmers on climate change information and appropriate climate smart agricultural practices If women perceive climate change and are aware of CSA practices, they can be as or more likely to adopt these practices Women’s roles in agriculture continue to grow due to male rural-urban migration Continuing investment in CSA practices without considering gendered differences is costly and leads to sub-optimal or non-adoption Business as usual can leave women and families worse off, as their assets will continue to be disposed off more readily when the next climatic shock hits Some concluding thoughts
  15. 15. Ringler, C., A. Quisumbing, E. Bryan, and R. Meinzen-Dick. (Eds.) 2014. Enhancing Women’s Assets to Manage Risk under Climate Change: Potential for Group-Based Approaches. IFPRI Policy Note Series. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/128599/filename/128810.pdf Bryan, E. and J. Behrman. 2013. Community-based adaptation to climate change: a theoretical framework, overview of key issues and discussion of gender differentiated priorities and participation. CAPRi Working Paper, 109. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15738coll2/id/127540 Goh, A.H.X. 2012. A literature review of the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women’s and men’s assets and well-being in developing countries. CAPRi Working Paper, 106. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/127247 Ragasa, C., Y. Sun, E. Bryan, C. Abate, A. Alemu and M. Namori Keita. 2013. Organizational and institutional issues in climate change adaptation and risk management. Insights from practitioners’ survey in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya and Mali. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1279. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/127758 Davis, P, and S. Ali. 2013. Exploring local perceptions of climate-change impact and adaptation in rural Bangladesh. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1322. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128014 Aberman, N.L., R. Birner, E. Haglund, M. Ngigi, S. Ali, B. Okoba, D. Koné, and T. Alemu. 2014. Understanding the policy landscape for climate change adaptation: a cross-country comparison using the Net-Map method. IFPRI Discussion Paper, 1408. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128928 Aberman, N.L., S. Ali, J. Behrman, E. Bryan, P. Davis, A. Donnelly, V. Gathaara, D. Kone, T. Nganga, J. Ngugi, B. Okoba, and C. Roncoli. 2014. Climate change adaptation, assets and group-based approaches: gendered perceptions from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali and Kenya. IFPRI Discussion Paper, 1412. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128950 Dillon, A. and J. Gill. 2014. Gender, Farm Assets, and the Role of Climate Variability on Production Possibilities. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128765 Quisumbing, A.R. and N. Kumar. 2014. Land rights knowledge and conservation in rural Ethiopia: Mind the gender gap. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1386. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128480 Quisumbing, A., N. Kumar, and J. Behrman. 2014. Do Shocks Affect Men’s and Women’s Assets Differently? Evidence from Bangladesh and Uganda. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/124940 Rakib, M. and J. Matz. 2014. Impact of shocks on gender differentiated asset dynamics in Bangladesh. IFPRI Discussion Paper, 1356. Washington, DC: IFPRI. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128191 Beaman, L. and A. Dillon. 2014. Diffusion of Agricultural Technologies within Social Networks: Evidence from Composting in Mali. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/128759 Twyman et al 2014. Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence that Gender Matters. CCAFS Working Paper, 83. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/51391/WP83.pdf Bernier et al. 2015. Gender and Institutional Aspects of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Kenya. CCAFS Working Paper, 79. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/65680/Gender%20and%20Institutions%20Working%20Paper%2079.pdf Delavallade et al. 2015. Managing Risk with Insurance and Savings: Experimental Evidence for Male and Female Farm Managers in West Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper, 1426. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/129071 Resources: Publications
  16. 16. Resources: Websites & toolkits • Project website: http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/ • Project website: http://climatechange.ifpri.info/womens- resilience-to-climate-change/ • Blog piece on Why rural women are integral in the upcoming climate change negotiations http://www.ifpri.org/blog/un- international-day-rural-women • Action-oriented research approaches beyond diagnostics from CCAFS-- http://ccafs.cgiar.org/research- highlight/new-toolbox-gender-and- inclusion-climate-change- projects#.VH0xnIcg25B. • Gender CC Toolkit: http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/files/20 15/02/BMZ_Toolkit_Final.pdf

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