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Feed the Future Seed System Programs

Presentation by Saharah Moon Chapotin, Bureau for Food Security at USAID, on April 28, 2016

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Feed the Future Seed System Programs

  1. 1. Feed the Future Seed System Programs Saharah Moon Chapotin Bureau for Food Security U.S. Agency for International Development
  2. 2. Key Seed Sector Constraints Agriculture Business Enabling Environment Framework Early generation seed supply scarcity (includes demand forecasting) Low capacity of NARS and private MSME seed companies Financing the seed value chain (company & smallholder) Farmers’ awareness These are mostly medium- to long-term constraints needing continued focus
  3. 3. Draft Common Good A good that cannot be excluded, but cannot be used or accessed simultaneously by multiple consumers (e.g., range land, open- pollinated variety) • Type 1 crop examples: OPV maize, OPV rice, wheat • Type 2 crop examples: chickpea, cowpea, groundnut Private Good A good that can be excluded and cannot be used or accessed simultaneously by multiple consumers (e.g., food, fertilizer) • Crop examples: hybrid maize, vegetables Public Good A good that cannot be excluded and can be accessed simultaneously by multiple consumers (e.g. road, rainfall) • Crop examples: millet, sorghum, teff Club Good A good that can be excluded, but can be used or accessed simultaneously by multiple consumers until congestion occurs (e.g., irrigation system, warehouse) • Crop examples: cotton, tobacco 1 2 34 Private Sector Dominant Public-Private Collaboration Niche Private Sector Public Sector Dominant SupplyPush DemandPull Seed supply system framework using public/private good characteristics Pathways to scale depend considerably on the level of public-sector involvement in supply and distribution. Public sector investment often crowds out private sector investment. However, for predominantly public goods, there may be no pathway for reaching scale.
  4. 4. Examples of illustrative seed-sector business models that support early generation seed production and delivery Variety Research & Development Foundation Seed Production Quality Seed Production Marketing & Distribution Breeder Seed Production & Maintenance Variety Selection & Breeding  Private Sector  Public Sector  Public-Private Legend: Type of actor investing in each value chain stage In North Carolina, the largest sweet potato producer in the US, variety R&D and breeding is conducted by North Carolina State University. Breeder seed, also known as “G1 Roots,” is then sold to commercial certified seed growers Commercial certified seed growers produce foundation seed (G2) for sale to “table- stock growers” “Table-stock growers” grow their own quality seed (G3), which they use for commercial crop production Strong consumer demand makes it profitable for the private sector to produce foundation and quality seed United States: Sweet Potato Public universities and research stations breed legumes with public funding— e.g., South Dakota State Univ. and SD Agric. Experiment Station breed soybean, chickpea, lentil, and field pea Non-profit foundation seed enterprises liaise between breeders and seed companies—e.g., SD Foundation Seed is financed through seed sales and makes grants to the university Private companies multiply, market and distribute seed— e.g., at least six companies in South Dakota produce commercial soybean seed Even in the US, costs are high for legume breeding and EGS production and are borne mainly by the public sector United States: Legumes R&D is conducted primarily by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, CGIAR) in collaboration with the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) Within IAARD, the Indonesian Center for Food Crops R&D (ICFORD) and Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR) coordinate to breed locally adapted varieties and produce and maintain breeder seed Private companies are beginning to produce and distribute quality rice seed, though the market remains heavily subsidized (~75%) Foundation seed production is dominated by the public sector, though some private companies are beginning to enter the market The private sector is relatively young, but is beginning to find profits from higher yield varieties bred by IRRI and IAARD Indonesia: Rice (OPV) Sources: NC State University. South Dakota State University, IRRI, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesian Center for Agricultural, Socio-Economic and Policy Studies IARCs w/ private sector & NARS
  5. 5. What policy constraints? Each country has its unique set of challenges
  6. 6. Recommendations to Governments and Donors to overcome specific economic constraints to scale Public-Private Collaboration Niche Private Sector Private Sector Dominant Public Sector Dominant Remove Market Distortions and Decrease Public Role Support and advocate for policies that enable the private sector to grow sustainably Potential Role of Government: • Transition out of playing a direct role supporting the value chain (e.g., stop producing foundation seed) • Remove distortionary subsidies and restrictions where possible Potential Role of Donors: •Demonstrate profit potential of the market through business cases •Alleviate high fixed cost of breeders through capacity building •Build capacity in banking sector to increase financing availability Mitigate Demand Risk Support stable and predictable demand and linkages between producers and markets Potential Role of Government: • Share demand risk with the private sector by backing financing and entering into surplus purchase arrangements • Invest in extension services to increase demand in rural markets Potential Role of Donors: • Improve availability and accessibility of data to enable more accurate demand forecasting and planning of production • Demonstrate private sector potential with business cases Drive Public Sector Efficiency Support efficiency of public entities through capacity building and organizational linkages Potential Role of Government: • Increase responsiveness of public breeding and production efforts by increasing farmer participation • Implement more efficient QA processes to ensure more effective resource use, including through building private sector capacity Potential Role of Donors: • Build decentralized capacity throughout a country to better leverage public resources and reduce dependence on • Implement monitoring and evaluation for public programs to understand impact and effectiveness of public investments Subsidize Production Costs Support breeder and foundation seed production by mitigating high fixed costs Potential Role of Government: • Directly subsidize fixed costs (e.g. breeders, certification) or back financing for capital investments, e.g. in technology • Partly or fully fund production of breeder and foundation seed on an ongoing and stable basis (e.g., CGIAR, NARS) Potential Role of Donors: • Alleviate fixed costs by funding R&D and breeder training • Ensure ROI on research by advocating for IP protections and linking breeding more closely to farmers’ and market demand 1 2a 3 2b
  7. 7. 10% 17% 18% 9% 13% 3% 26% 4% Feed the Future: Seed-Related Projects: By Focus Area Commercialization & value chain EGS & value chain Enabling environment Research Research & commercialization Research & EGS Value chain Other Equals 100% of projects. Projects = 114 23% 14% 23% 13% 9% 10% 8% Feed the Future: Seed-Related Projects: By Crops Maize Rice Pulses Other Grains RTBs Vegetables Specialty Percent of projects that include these categories of crops. Some projects include more than one crop. Does not include enabling environment projects. Investments in seed-related projects There are 511 projects entries in the Feed the Future Monitoring System, of which 114 are seed-related projects. These seed-related projects represent projects that are addressing different aspects of seed value chains. Source: Feed the Future Monitoring System, Implementing Mechanism Performance Narratives for FY2015 (January, 2016) 64% 36% Feed the Future: Seed-Related Projects by Operating Unit Mission Washington
  8. 8. SSA by crop Varietal Age (yrs) Number Banana 10.2 1 Sweetpotato 10.3 5 Groundnut 11.7 5 Chickpea 11.9 2 Cowpea 11.9 16 Lentil 12.5 1 Maize–WCA 12.8 11 Wheat 12.8 1 Maize–ESA 13.0 8 Beans 13.8 9 Cassava 14.1 17 Soybean 14.2 11 Pearl millet 14.8 3 Rice 15.8 4 Sorghum 17.4 6 Pigeonpea 17.9 2 Yams 18.4 5 Barley 18.5 2 Field pea 18.9 1 Potato 19.4 5 Faba bean 20.7 2 Weighted mean / Total 14.0 117 The velocity of varietal turnover of improved varieties in farmers’ fields in SSA 1. Bangladesh, India, Nepal: Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CG) 2. Cambodia, Nepal: Seed Scaling: Stress Tolerant Rice for Asia (CG) 3. Central America, Carribean: Coffee Rust Support 4. East Africa: Drought Tolerant Maize for African Seed Systems (CG) 5. Ethiopia: Barley and Faba (CG) 6. Ethiopia: Farm Service Center Project 7. Ethiopia: Scaling High Yield Chickpea Varieties (CG) 8. FtF countries: Collaborative Research on Grain Legumes 9. Ghana: Agricultural Technology Transfer 10. Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal: Seed Scaling: Cowpea for West Africa (CG) 11. Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal: Seed Scaling: Stress Tolerant Rice for Africa (CG) 12. Global: Rice Science Partnership (CG) 13. Global: Roots, Tubers and Bananas for Food Security and Income (CG) 14. Guatemala: MasFrijol (CG) 15. Kenya: One Acre Fund 16. Malawi: New Alliance ICT Extension Challenge Fund Malawi 17. Malawi: Improved Seed Systems and Technologies (CG) 18. Mali: Deploying Improved Vegetable technologies to Overcome Malnutrition and Poverty (CG) 19. Nepal: Hill Maize Research Project (CG) 20. Nepal: Knowledge-based Integrated Sustainable Agriculture and Nutrition 21. Nigeria: Maximizing Agricultural Revenue and Key Enterprises in Targeted Sectors 22. Rwanda: Private Sector Development – Agriculture 23. Senegal: Economic Growth Project 24. Sub-Saharan Africa: World Vegetable Center (CG) 25. Tajikistan: Potato Production Support (CG) 26. West Africa: West Africa Seed Program 27. Uganda: Agricultural Inputs Activity Source: Measuring the Effectiveness of Crop Improvement Research in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Perspectives of Varietal Output, Adoption, and Change: 20 Crops, 30 Countries, and 1150 Cultivars in Farmers’ Fields, July, 2014 USAID Seed Projects with “Quality” or “Quality Declared” components Of 27 relevant projects, 15 are with CG Centers
  9. 9. Feed the Future projects with a focus on scaling seeds – monetizing R&D ProjectTitle Countries Category Partner organization Climate Resilient Maize Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia Cereals CIMMYT Stress tolerant rice for Africa Senegal, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria Cereals Africa Rice Stress tolerant rice for Asia Cambodia, Nepal Cereals IRRI Household Vegetable Seed kits Liberia, Cambodia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Horticulture AVRDC Cowpea for West Africa Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Nigeria Legume IITA Groundnut in West Africa Mali, Ghana, Nigeria Legume ICRISAT Barley and Faba in Ethiopia Ethiopia Specialty Market ICARDA CSISA Wheat and Lentil in Nepal Nepal Cereal/Legume CIMMYT MasAgro Guatemala Guatemala Cereal CIMMYT Scaling Seeds & Technologies Partnership Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, Tanzania Field crops AGRA Partnering for Innovation Various Various Fintrac Mission Scaling Plans and Projects FtF Focus Countries Various Various
  10. 10. • Six countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, Tanzania • 38 technologies are being commercialized, especially seeds of improved varieties of quality materials • +10,000 demo plots • 42 field days/seed fairs • 100,000 households reached by ICT- enabled extension services (radio, mobile, low cost video, TV) • On-line COMESA Regional Plant Variety Catalog • Support to local seed companies SCALING SEEDS & TECHNOLOGIES PARTNERSHIP WITH THE ALLIANCE FOR A GREEN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA (AGRA)
  11. 11. Seed Scaling Projects Three examples of the strategies determined through stakeholder meetings: Climate Resilient Maize – Drought negatively influences the willingness of farmers to purchase inputs. The project works through SMSE’s to increase availability and adoption of improved seed. Project interventions include national and regional marketing campaigns and technical support, small grants and cost recovered foundation seed to SMSE’s. Stress Tolerant Rice for Africa – Stakeholders decided the investment needed to promote adoption was in purifying lines and training companies on quality seed production. Cowpea for W Africa – The project emphasizes seed production by community based organizations as out-growers for small seed companies and as independent producers. It focuses on relieving constraints to early generation seed access, increasing awareness of improved varieties and reducing postharvest loss to make investment in improved varieties more profitable.
  12. 12. Senegal Case Study: Naatal Mbay 12 Better Seeds: Naatal Mbay promotes varieties like NERICA rice (Yields up to 3X higher & seeds require less water) Better Partnerships: • Funding seed labs • Promoting PPPs to establish private seed processing centers • Training community farmers as certified seed producers Better Results: 10,000 tons of certified rice, maize and millet seed –> meets the needs of 180,000 small cereal farmers
  13. 13.