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Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research


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Rhiannon Pyburn, Illiana Monterroso, Hazel Malapit, Katrina Kosec, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Jennifer Twyman, and Dina Najjar
Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research
Co-Organized by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets and IFPRI
OCT 30, 2019 - 12:15 PM TO 01:45 PM EDT

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research

  1. 1. Landmark publication on CGIAR gender research CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research Rhiannon Pyburn Coordinator Senior Advisor, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) 12h15-13h45 CEST October 30, 2019
  2. 2. Objectives of the Platform (Jan 2017-Dec 2019) • Visibility, capacity development, system-wide gender research agenda, partnership development 1 Group photo: First jointly convened annual conference (with University of Canberra and ACIAR) : Seeds of Change, Canberra, Australia, April 2019
  3. 3. Objectives of the report • Review, synthesize findings to-date, and reflect on a set of specific gender themes within CGIAR • Challenge boundaries to stimulate creative perspectives and new insights by reframing analysis • Set a forward-looking research agenda on how agriculture / NRM can advance gender equality in its own right 2
  4. 4. Reframing with a gender equality lens Intentionally ‘flip’ the direction of the questions being asked: from How does gender analysis contribute to agricultural development and NRM? (e.g. often focusing on increasing productivity, better efficiency and more/better uptake of technologies developed) to How do agricultural and natural resource management (both research and development initiatives) contribute to achieving gender equality? 3
  5. 5. Nine cross-cutting themes “how agriculture/NRM can advance gender equality through….” 1. Breeding programs 2. Seed systems 3. Value chain development 4. Natural resource governance 5. Nutrition-sensitive agricultural programs 6. Climate change mitigation 7. Examining evidence on the “feminization” of agriculture 8. Assessing Women’s Empowerment 9. Engaging with constraining norms through Gender Transformative Approaches (GTAs) 4
  6. 6. Definitions Empowerment “the process by which those who have been denied the ability to make strategic life choices acquire such an ability." "The ability to exercise choice incorporates three inter-related dimensions: resources (defined broadly to include not only access, but also future claims, to both material and human and social resources); agency (including processes of decision making, as well as less measurable manifestations of agency such as negotiation, deception and manipulation); and achievements (well-being outcomes)” - Kabeer 1999 Gender Equality “This refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not mean that women and men will become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken into consideration, recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men. Gender equality is not a women’s issue but should concern and fully engage men as well as women. Equality between women and men is seen both as a human rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator of, sustainable people-centered development” - UN Women Glossary 5
  7. 7. Overall framework 6 • Reach-benefit- empower-transform • Level of change: individual change, relational, systemic • Material / ideational • Scale • Broader changes
  8. 8. Natural Resource Governance and Gender Deepa Joshi (IWMI), Iliana Monterroso (CIFOR), Valentina Peveri, Kokila Perera
  9. 9. How has the management and governance of water, land and forests (as natural resources) impacted gender equality and empowerment? Four key messages: 1. Accounting and addressing gender differences in the distribution of property rights can improve outcomes of policies and interventions 2. Structures governing natural resources are based on and influenced by asset endowments, social norms, legal structures and power relations; women face important limitations to participate actively and effectively which affects how they can benefit 3. Factors that influence access and adoption of technologies need to account for the gender differentiated roles, forms of knowledge and access to information and how these influence behavior and decisions 4. Policies and interventions addressing natural resource depletion and environmental degradation impacts resource user groups in different ways 8
  10. 10. What have we learned from of CGIAR research? Devolution of forests rights Clarifying and securing tenure rights to forest resources • Plurality of the forest tenure systems • Other dimensions influencing social differentiation need to address these alongside gender issues • Formalization of women’s rights to forests resources vs. social relations around natural resources Institutional arrangements and social norms influencing women’s access (rights) and control (decision making) over forest resources take place at multiple levels • Customary institutional arrangements promote collective action and influence forest resource management decisions • Increasing participation of women in forest user groups (Rule making, reinforcement) leads to improve management outcomes • Gender-blind forest initiatives (REDD, Restoration) often rely disproportionately on women’s labor- inequalities with respect to access to forest resources with. Implications in terms of benefits and empowerment. From water management to water governance Change in focus paved the way to looking at gender inequality and empowerment in relation to water • ‘Who gets what water, when and how, and who has (what kinds of) rights to water and related services, and their benefits’ • Because water is fluid: access, use and management is realized and legitimized in conditions of Legal Plurality • Negotiations of access, use and control dynamic and evolved temporally as well as spatially Water and collective action • “collectives” of the locals are not inherently and explicitly inclusive • ‘intra-community differences’ particularly, in relation to women’s exclusion from irrigation committees through formal and informal practices • Participation in water management initiatives (e.g. irrigation) contributes to women empowerment. 9
  11. 11. 3. Key elements of the forward-looking research agenda The 2030 sustainability agenda (SDGs) calls for attention to dual goals of sustainability and inclusion: • “Sustainability requires men and women to work together to protect and enrich the natural resource base” Meinzen-Dick, Kovarik, and Quisumbing 2014 • BUT R4D research and interventions either see gender and the environment/NRM as parallel agendas OR persisting simplistic understanding of gender as implying “women” • Work around masculinities; Incorporating intersectional perspectives to understand inequalities as contextual, and political provides a way forward to transformational change • Rapidly changing economic, environmental and political processes require exploring how diverse types of power, agency and decision-making influence natural resource governance 10
  12. 12. Gender and Nutrition-Sensitive Agricultural Programs Hazel Malapit (IFPRI), Jessica Heckert (IFPRI), Jessica Scott (WorldFish), Padmaja Ravula (ICRISAT), Agnes Quisumbing (IFPRI) Gender and Nutrition-Sensitive Agricultural Programs
  13. 13. How can nutrition-sensitive agricultural programs (NSAPs) contribute to women’s empowerment and gender equality? If NSAPs succeed in improving nutritional status of women and girls: • Direct benefits on the wellbeing of women and girls and helps to narrow existing gender gaps • Better nutrition can unlock the empowerment process • Benefits can be passed on to the next generation If NSAPs focus on shifting gender norms and empowering women as a pathway to nutrition: • Adopt strategies and actions that transform gender norms and directly empower women within the project time frame (with potential longer term changes) • Have the potential to close gender gaps not only in nutrition and health but also across other dimensions of wellbeing Photo credit: HKI
  14. 14. What have we learned from CGIAR research? 1. NSAPs can contribute to women’s empowerment and gender equality BUT it does not happen automatically 2. Even when NSAPs consider gender roles in designing their programs, they may only seek to “reach” or “benefit” women, not to empower them, and thus not implement the appropriate strategies that could potentially empower them. 3. They may take gender roles into account, but not seek to transform them. 4. Even if NSAPs aim to empower women, their M&E frameworks may not include measurable indicators of empowerment, and thus will not be able to ascertain whether their interventions empowered women. Photo credits (Clockwise from top left): Neha Kumar (IFPRI); Melissa Hidrobo (IFPRI); Bartay (HKI); Agnes Quisumbing (IFPRI).
  15. 15. Toward the next generation of gender- transformative NSAPs 1. Collect data on outcomes of all household members, not just the target group of the intervention 2. Bring men on board 3. Pay attention to unintended consequences of women’s involvement, including increased work burdens and the possibility of backlash from men 4. Assess impacts on women’s empowerment as an outcome in its own right, and not merely as an instrument for achieving nutrition outcomes Photo credit: Shammi Ferdousi (ANGeL)
  16. 16. “Feminization” of Agriculture: Examining the Evidence Cheryl Doss (Oxford), Katrina Kosec (IFPRI), Alessandra Galie (ILRI), Ayesha Qaisrani (RA), and Vanya Slavchevska (CIAT)
  17. 17. Why this topic? • Changes in the rural sector include changes in labor patterns and decision-making in agriculture • Drivers of change include: climate change, crises, shocks, migration opportunities, new technology/ mechanization, commercialization of ag., new policies, changing aspirations • Two distinct views:  Women’s agency increases; become decision-makers on the farm/ in the community  Women are “left behind” and carry additional burdens of labor and responsibility, with inadequate resources • Insufficient understanding of:  How the gendered patterns of agricultural labor are changing (necessary for policy/ intervention designs)  The net impacts of these changes on gender equality, both in terms of work and agency 16
  18. 18. What have we learned from CGIAR research? • Women are increasing both the amount of time that they spend in agriculture and the range of activities in which they are involved (although not in all contexts) • Men’s and women’s agricultural labor often remains segregated; more lucrative opportunities go to men, women are paid less for the same tasks, women face harassment • As women avail of new economic opportunities, they often face a substantial increase in their daily workloads • Nonetheless, women’s increased engagement in agricultural decision-making and take-up of paid work opportunities has the potential to change social norms, give women a community of women and greater respect, and more broadly empower women 17
  19. 19. 18 • Need to apply an intersectional lens • Need better analyses of how interventions can improve gender equality Data needs:  Quantitative: Macro-level data on trends and patterns and on changing policies and institutions across time and space; data on women’s voice and agency in policy-making; better time use data  Qualitative: To understand not just the outcomes, but also processes of change • Policies in commercial agriculture need to prevent exploitation of labor (e.g., women have less bargaining power) • Need for hiring more women managers (role models) • Need to capture the subjective notions of wellbeing of women in different regions (these vary across cultures but are a key dimension of gender equality) Looking ahead
  20. 20. Assessing Women’s Empowerment in and through Agricultural Research for Development: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities Steven Cole, Marlène Elias, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Ana Maria Paez, Agnes Quisumbing, Jennifer Twyman (alphabetical)
  21. 21. Key messages • Historical context to the women’s empowerment (WE) agenda • definitions and frameworks vary • often depoliticized • Measuring WE offers different pathways for supporting women’s empowerment • Different tools and approaches contribute to different pathways • Bringing tools together (interdisciplinary, mixed methods) provide more holistic assessments • from emic and etic perspectives • assessing fosters (directly or indirectly) changes in WE and gender equality 20
  22. 22. Learning from CGIAR gender research Multiple measures of women’s empowerment of agriculture produced in CGIAR They largely cluster around: - the WEAI, adaptations and derivatives - GENNOVATE tools Some attempts to bring qualitative and quantitative approaches together 21
  23. 23. Personal or Relational Environmental & relational or all three levels Resources or Agency Resources, Agency & AchievementsPersonal & Relational Resources & Agency Ladder of power & freedom WEI (Oxfam)WE FI WELI WEI (IRRI) 5 Dimensions WEAI, A-WEAI WEI (CARE) WDI - GAI Empowerment profiles Gender Indicator Monitoring Tool GEI - CSV Wellbeing timelines Qualitative Quantitativ e Levels Dimensions Pro-WEAI Similar in scope Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4 Towards a multidimensional approach to assessing empowerment Towardsassessingempowermentatmultiple levels Key
  24. 24. Forward-looking agenda - Balancing between the ability to measure across countries/measure at large scale and measures that capture the contextual nature of empowerment - Positioning women’s empowerment in agriculture in relation to other aspects of women’s lives; agriculture itself may not be empowering for women - Greater attention to intersectionality - Understanding situations where women ‘choose not to choose’ (do not wish to be involved some types of decisions) - Embedding measures of potential backlash due to women’s empowerment within measures 23
  25. 25. Beyond GAD: Engaging with constraining norms through gender transformative approaches Cynthia McDougall Lone Badstue Marlène Elias Gundula Fischer Deepa Joshi Rhiannon Pyburn Annet Mulema Dina Najjar
  26. 26. What are Gender Transformative Approaches (GTAs)? • Relate to the focus on creating an enabling social environment and more equitable formal and informal institutions that expand life choices for women and men. • Use a combination of participatory research tools to lead participants through a change process. Why are GTAs important? • Existing empowerment approaches limited in their sustainability; can have negative work burden implications; and are mostly focused on individuals. • Explicitly challenge norms in a safe environment 25
  27. 27. Type of GTA Mechanisms and strategies Outcomes Testing a gender transformative approach with polyculture harvesting technology in Bangladesh (WorldF ish) - WorldFish developed / piloted an integrated social/technical strategy -with women and men from the same households, and more powerful household members (often mother-in-laws and father-in-laws) over 1-year. - Sparked dialogue between more and less powerful members of the household about possibilities for changing dynamics. Gender Action Learning System in Malawi (WorldFish) - GTA combined with technical innovation process (participatory action research testing of technologies to reduce postharvest loss) - The GTA (‘communication for social change’) comprised bespoke community theatre (drama skits) raising local gender dynamics iterating with discussions in the participatory action research groups Changes in GTA sites compared to gender accommodative sites: Increased gender attitude scores (28.6% vs 11.7%), especially for the men who participated (35.7% vs. 13.3%) Changes in women’s empowerment GTA: - Increased women’s participation in fishing (5%- 75%) - Increase of women’s contributions to intra- household decisions about the income generated from processing fish (49%) - Fishing gear ownership status changed from sole ownership of men to joint ownership of spouses (44% to 76% reported joint ownership). Using ‘Community conversations’ to transform gender relations in Ethiopia (ILRI & ICARDA) - Engaged not only farmers but also other development actors. - Highlights that GTAs aspire to challenge development actors and agencies, including R4D organizations to become critically self-aware of their own gender positions, beliefs, and biases as a foundation for systemic change. 26
  28. 28. Way Forward • There are still gaps in knowledge about a gender transformative approach in at least two critical areas: a) evidence of strategies linked to outcomes; and, b) engaging with change at scale. • Enacting lasting, substantive transformation towards gender equality involves transformation of gender barriers at multiple scales, some key questions: • How, why, and in what direction does transformation at one scale affect another? • What motivates and enables – deters / limits – public, civil or private actors to catalyse gender transformative change? • How can organizations interested in catalysing GTAs change themselves transition to and maintain internal gender equality cultures and systems as a foundation for catalysing systemic change? 27
  29. 29. Thank you Photo: Neil Palmer/IWMI