2013 Global Hunger Index Launch Event Concern Worldwide Presentation


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Presentation by Connell Foley, Director of Strategy, Concern Worldwide at 2013 Global Hunger Index Launch event held at IFPRI on October 18, 2013. "The Challenge of Hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food And Nutrition Security".

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2013 Global Hunger Index Launch Event Concern Worldwide Presentation

  1. 1. Applying Lessons Learned on Community Resilience to Chronic Hunger Crises, GHI, 2013 Ethiopia 2012: Watershed and Land Regeneration, Walka Melho kebele, Delante woreda, North Wollo.
  2. 2. Operational Research: 3 hunger seasons (2010-12) Focused on cash transfers as seasonal safety net, Tahoua Region 1. Cash transfers lead to more frequent meals for children and more legume consumption. A large portion of cash transfers are spent on household food. 2. To improve or maintain nutritional status, cash transfers alone or with CMAM are not enough and should be integrated with other interventions that address the causes of malnutrition and food insecurity. 3. Nutrition and food security indicators such as number of hunger days, dietary diversity scores or global acute malnutrition rate should be monitored to account for cash transfers’ many uses and to measure the nutritional success of the program.
  3. 3. Niger Learning  Cash transfers and nutrition treatment programs that focused on seasonal hunger needs were insufficient to create resilience to periodic hunger crises.  Longer-term development interventions focused on building absorptive and adaptive coping strategies would be required.
  4. 4. Ethiopia: South Wollo  Dessie Zuria woreda, South Wollo, Amhara Region, stunting = 54%, (national average = 44%).  Woreda chronically food insecure: c. 40% dependent on safety nets.  2000 and 2010 annual surveys: GAM reduced only once to <10%.  High dependence on Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP).  Coping mechanisms: PSNP, begging, eating unpalatable wild fruits, and daily labour.  Livelihoods very vulnerable to risks and shocks: climate variability, human and livestock diseases, pests, flooding and landslides.
  5. 5. Ethiopia Interventions  Resilience building multi-sectoral interventions – – – – – – Land and water management Frost tolerant crops in highlands (potato) Crop diversification Increasing and maintaining livestock assets Water and sanitation Early identification of malnutrition and CMAM response  Complementing the PSNP with Fresh Food Vouchers during the hunger season and with IYCF support
  6. 6. Learning from Ethiopia • Use multisectoral approach to maximize linkages between sectors. • Use existing institutions’ coordination to promote a sense of ownership. • Map real-time, resilience outcomes to create evidence for policy change. • Address the environmental drivers of risk and use DRR technologies and practices for sustainable food production (e.g. watershed management). • Address gender issues that are critical to achieving resilience. • Create a contingency plan - define surge capacity to help respond to small-scale disasters or provide an initial response to large-scale disasters. • Support local governments with early warning systems and communicate during even small disasters to ensure that food security is not threatened by the cumulative effects of lesser shocks or stressors.
  7. 7. GAM Trends Northern Kenya 2010 and 2011 2010 and 2011 nutrition surveys were conducted between April and June. Data from these surveys was used to construct maps
  8. 8. GAM & SAM Trends Northern Kenya 2010 and 2011 Global acute malnutrition District 2010 rate (%) 2011 rate (%) % change Severe acute malnutrition 2010 rate (%) 2011 rate % change (%) Marsabit 13.4 27.1 102 1.3 5.0 285 Wajir North 19.8 27.9 41 1.4 6.8 386 Moyale 12.3 13.7 11 3.0 1.5 -50
  9. 9. Interventions in Moyale, Kenya 1. 2. 3. 4. Livelihoods and Water interventions: introducing dryland farming (alongside pastoralism) producing kale, onion, tomatoes and fruits; introducing drought tolerant species such as cassava; improving irrigation systems; diversifying livestock; rangeland management; conflict mitigation on pasture access; and improved access to water. Strengthened Gov capacity to respond to nutritional crises: supported the District Health Management Team through technical training to staff, establishing technical protocols and quality of care oversight systems, adopting interventions with the highest impact on mortality, improving budgeting, setting thresholds, strategies, and protocols for scale up and scale down, and situation monitoring mechanisms aimed at informing triggers for scale-up. Early scaling up of high impact nutrition interventions when warnings rang. Coordination: Kenyan government services, WFP, World Vision (food and cash transfers)
  10. 10. Lessons from Kenya ASALS:  Strengthening of resilience at community level: contextually appropriate, multisectoral interventions worked!  Strengthening government capacity to respond to a nutritional emergency (―surge capacity model‖)  Early scaling up of high impact interventions  Coordination between government and other partners
  11. 11. Health system strengthening Caseload Health System Capacity External support Ongoing health systems strengthening efforts Time *Adapted from P. Hailey and D. Tewoldeberha, ENN, 2010, issue 39
  12. 12. Community Resilience to Acute Malnutrition (CRAM) Linking Humanitarian and Development Programming  Text
  13. 13. 1. Conservation Agriculture Community Resilience to Acute trees) 2. Soil Fertility (including Malnutrition (CRAM) 3. Integrated Pest In an IntegratedManagement Programme 4. Extension Messages 1. Increased access to safe water • Borehole drilling • Water conveyancing 2. Promoting improved sanitation • CLTS and PHAST • Community Latrines 3. Community Water Management Groups 5. Decreasing post harvest losses 6. Homestead Gardening 7. Support small scale irrigation 8. Support IGAs 9. Support the development of the PS 1. Improved Community Health Outreach • Community Case Management and Care Groups • Effective MAM 2. Health System Strengthening • Management of the health system • Mobile clinics 1. Increase capacity of 3. Changing Feeding Practices community groups and women's participation in them 2. Community Conversations 3. Targeting Community Leaders for attitude and behaviour change
  14. 14. Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5 Wk 6 Wk 7 Wk 8 Wk 9 Wk 10 Wk 11 Wk 12 Wk 13 Wk 14 Wk 15 Wk 16 Wk 17 Wk 18 Wk 19 Wk 20 Wk 21 Wk 22 Wk 23 Wk 24 Wk 25 Wk 26 Wk 27 Wk 28 Wk 29 Wk 30 Wk 31 Wk 32 Wk 33 Wk 34 Wk 35 Wk 36 Wk 37 Wk 38 Wk 39 Wk 40 Wk 41 Wk 42 Wk 43 Wk 44 Wk 45 Wk 46 Wk 47 Wk 48 Wk 49 Wk 50 Wk 51 Wk 52 Expected SAM Outcomes between Treatment and Control Areas Treatment Area Control Area Response Threshold Normal Year
  15. 15. Concern and Welthungerhilfe Conclusions: Guiding Principles for Resilience Building 1. Undertake systematic risk analysis incl. analysis and planning for future uncertainty and worse case scenarios. 2. Reduce the causes of vulnerability by building assets and supporting sustainable livelihoods. 3. Address drivers of inequality. 4. Build up communities’ absorptive and adaptive capacities, including better access to safety nets and deepening or diversifying livelihoods. 5. Support enhanced capacity for effective and timely emergency responses. 6. Build institutions for governance and risk management at local level. A presentation to Karina Howley, KPMG — 4th April 2011
  16. 16. Targeted Recommendations (Note: large overlaps across the target groups) 1. International development, humanitarian, and donor communities. 2. Country-level policymakers in food-insecure countries. 3. Development and humanitarian practitioners. Resilience is not a panacea!!
  17. 17. Selected policy recommendations: int’l development, humanitarian & donor communities • Break down the institutional, financial, and conceptual walls separating development and humanitarian assistance in donor and UN agencies to achieve greater synergies in strategies and implementation plans. • Support a coordinated approach to monitoring resiliencebuilding measures and building an evidence base on the impact and effectiveness of such measures. • Support a pro-poor resilience approach.
  18. 18. Selected policy recommendations: country-level policymakers in food-insecure countries • Develop national approaches to food and nutrition security that are resilient to shocks and other stresses. • Encourage and facilitate a multi-sectoral approach to resilience, coordinating plans and programs across line ministries. • Evaluate national sectoral strategies and action plans using disaster-proofing and resilience-building lenses.
  19. 19. Selected policy recommendations: development and humanitarian practitioners • Focus on improving maternal and child nutrition in developing regions, with interventions to address the immediate and underlying causes of undernutrition. • Support positive coping mechanisms that people already use, such as community-level savings networks or banks. • NGOs and their national partners should use their longterm experience in development programming more proactively to lobby for resilience-enhancing policy change.