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Changing diets: The Asia Pacific perspective

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Jessica Fanzo
IFPRI-FAO conference, "Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition"
November 28–30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Changing diets: The Asia Pacific perspective

  1. 1. Changing Diets: The Asia Pacific Perspective Jess Fanzo, FAO and Johns Hopkins University November 29, Bangkok
  2. 2. What people are eating around the world Source: Afshin, GBD DC Food Forum Sept 2018
  3. 3. Why the Asia-Pacific context is unique ▪ Massive population and population pressure ▪ Food systems are very diverse because of the many distinct economies and drivers that shape them ▪ However inequities exist – across urban and rural food systems and environments ▪ Burdens are quite distinct as well, depending on the country and even sub-nationally ▪ Different cultures, traditions and social norms with food and eating Source: FAO SOFI RAP Region 2018
  4. 4. Transformations of the Asian agri-food economy ▪ Urbanization - 56% by 2030 and 64% by 2050 ▪ Agri-food system transformation - “post farmgate” segments of the supply chain moved to secondary and primary cities ▪ Rural factor market transformation – rural nonfarm employment increasing ▪ Intensification of farm technology - farms have commercialized; and diversified, and specialized ▪ Dietary changes – Bennett’s law in action Source: T. Reardon, C.P. Timmer / Global Food Security 3 (2014) 108–117
  5. 5. What people are eating in Asia Source: GDD Tufts; Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition. 2016. Food systems and diets: Facing the challenges of the 21st century. London, UK Dietary intake of food groups, 2010 Changes in dietary intake, 1990-2013
  6. 6. What are the diet trends in the Asia Pacific? Source: Baker and Friel Globalization and Health (2016) 12:80 Distribution share (%) of processed foods through modern grocery retail channels, 1999–2013 Sales of ultra-processed food products and oils & fats, in selected Asian markets, 2000–2013 with projections to 2017
  7. 7. Nutrition consequences of global and Asian-Pac diets 821 million people go to bed hungry 151 million children are stunted 50 million children are wasted 2.1 billion adults are overweight or obese 38 million children are overweight 88% of countries face a serious burden of either two or three forms of malnutrition Source: Development Initiatives 2018 Global Nutrition Report; UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Malnutrition Estimates 2018
  8. 8. Health consequences of global diets Source: GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators (2017). Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet High Socio-demographic Index Countries Low Socio-demographic Index Countries
  9. 9. Health consequences of Asian-Pac diets Source: GBD 2018 Visual Hub India Thailand Risk factors that drive the most death and disability combined: 2007 and 2017
  10. 10. Equity consequences of Asian diets Source: Tufts Global Dietary Database – Accessed November 2018; WFP Fill the Nutrient Gap + FAO SOFI RAP 2018
  11. 11. Climate consequences of Asian-Pac diets Source: Ranganathan, J., Vennard, D., Waite, R.I.C.H.A.R.D., Dumas, P., Lipinski, B. and Searchinger, T., 2016. Shifting diets for a sustainable food future. World Resources Institute; He, P., Baiocchi, G., Hubacek, K., Feng, K. and Yu, Y., 2018. The environmental impacts of rapidly changing diets and their nutritional quality in China. Nature Sustainability, 1(3), p.122. Impacts of diets on the environment: China case study
  12. 12. What can be done now, and into the future ▪ The malnutrition burden is massive, particularly for Asia: diets are major contributors to that burden and we need significant action across food systems now. ▪ Environmental impacts of changing diets and food systems are significant. ▪ There are many policy actions that can be taken: National food policies should span value chains, food environment and consumer demand. ▪ Composite approaches are needed: No one approach will do everything. A mix of regulatory, fiscal, voluntary and other approaches is required. ▪ Consumption matters: Sustainable, safe, healthy eating patterns must be taken seriously. ▪ Lack of evidence is no excuse for inaction: action generates evidence. ▪ A whole food system approach is needed: While there are health and environmental win- wins there can be trade-offs too as seen with the different health and environmental impacts of sugars and meats. There will also be food system trade-offs, and the different interests of different stakeholders need to be recognized.
  13. 13. Thank you! @jessfanzo

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