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Agricultural Development, Nutrition and Health: Exploiting Synergies


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Presentation by Laurian Unnevehr at the event, “2013 AAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting” which took place on August 4-6, 2013 in Washington, DC. It offers AAEA members, CAES members, and other applied economists a chance to interact and learn over the course of the three day meeting.

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Agricultural Development, Nutrition and Health: Exploiting Synergies

  1. 1. Examples from the CGIAR Research Program Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) Agricultural Development, Nutrition and Health: Exploiting Synergies Presentation at the AAEA C-FARE Organized Symposium on “Agricultural Development, Nutrition and Health: Synergies or Tradeoffs?” August 6, 2013 Laurian Unnevehr Senior Research Fellow and A4NH Theme Leader IFPRI
  2. 2. CGIAR Research Agenda
  3. 3. Reframing Health-Ag Linkages • One Health– • Animals, people, environment all interact to create health conditions. • Rapid changes in human environment, animal ag lead to new disease challenges. • Nutrition and agriculture– • Beyond calorie availability and income growth • Increase emphasis on diet quality/diversity, women’s empowerment Davos GRF FAO SOFA
  4. 4. Examples of A4NH Research to Exploit Ag- Health-Nutrition Synergies • Biofortification • Aflatoxin control • Value chains for nutrition
  5. 5. 2011 Cassava Provitamin A DR Congo, Nigeria 2012 Beans Iron (Zinc) DR Congo, Rwanda 2012 Maize Provitamin A Zambia 2012 Pearl Millet Iron (Zinc) India 2013 Rice Zinc Bangladesh, India 2013 Wheat Zinc India, Pakistan Biofortification
  6. 6. Biofortification Synergies • Ex-ante analysis shows high rate of return and cost-effectiveness of biofortification – Micronutrient deficiencies have high DALY cost – Biofortification cheaper than food fortification or supplementation • Baseline and follow up surveys with roll out of biofortified varieties test ex-post– OFSP results already in • Mainstream nutrient analysis in crop breeding programs
  7. 7. A4NH Aflatoxin Research Agenda • Research scope – Health • Stunting – Technologies • Host resistance • Biocontrol • Diagnostics – Markets and Policies • Incentives • Standards • Risk analysis approach – Entire chain – Control Points – Hot spots – Benefit – cost trade off’s – Communication Supports
  8. 8. Aflatoxin Control Synergies Health Producti vity Market development Trade Improved crop husbandry, storage management leads to increases in yields and reduced aflatoxins Reduced aflatoxin levels support market development for processed foods, feeds Reduced aflatoxins mean fewer acute and chronic health effects Reduced aflatoxin levels supports expanded regional and global trade
  9. 9. Value Chains, Market Failures, and Diet Diversity • Consumer knowledge incomplete – nutrition, nutrient content/ safety of foods • Supply constraints for nutrient rich foods – perishability, seasonality, variable nutrient content, food safety • Result: Under-provision of improved nutrition and food safety
  10. 10. Inputs into production Food production Food storage and processing Food distribution and transport Food retail and labeling Value Chain Approach Consumer Producer Supply side Develop and test solutions Demand side Characterize diets, market access and constraints to consumption of nutritious, safe foods Test solutions to improve demand for nutrition and safety along the value chain Identify production and market constraints to improved nutrition and safety Example: Increased seasonal availability of fruit Example: Nutrition education delivered by vegetable seed supplier Example: Create new value chain to deliver nutritious foods to school lunches
  11. 11. Testing Value Chain Synergies • New research projects • Develop markets for high value crops – Increase income – Reduce relative prices of nutrient rich foods – Increase consumer access • Leverage market incentives to enhance nutritional outcomes from markets – Partnerships with private sector
  12. 12. Summing Up: A4NH Research to Exploit Synergies Between Agriculture and Health/Nutrition • Biofortification – Explicit attention to micronutrients in breeding is cost- effective way to address inadequate intakes • Aflatoxin control – Improved productivity, health, market development from reduced aflatoxins • Value chains for nutrition – Expanded production of high value crops supports greater diet diversity and improved incomes, market performance