Removing Poverty: Role of HR & POs Deep Joshi 29 January 2010
Conceptions & Strategies <ul><li>Classical View of Poverty: </li></ul><ul><li>A material or economic condition caused by p...
Conceptions & Strategies <ul><li>An alternative Formulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of power in society key driver...
Person <ul><li>Historically and Structurally Isolated and/or Excluded Social Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They Lack  Self-...
Place <ul><li>Determines Assets/Endowments, Institutions and Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Position <ul><li>The Political Currency of One’s Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to Influence Policy, Rules of t...
What the Data Says <ul><li>Is it Mumbo-Jumbo or Does the Data Support It? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendulkar Committee Findin...
Geography of Poverty: Place <ul><li>Poorest 5 States (Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Social/Ethnic Composition: Person & Position <ul><li>Tribes ~ 75% BPL (projected from old ratios) </li></ul><ul><li>  ~ 8....
The Poor are also Heterogeneous  <ul><li>Declining Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Journey Out of Poverty Access to entitlements Confidence – building (public goods) Extreme poor Most vulnerable Least resi...
Segmented Strategies to Remove Poverty
Pathways Out of Poverty  <ul><li>Enhancing Self-Efficacy/Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Capital (Agency) </li></ul></u...
Enhancing/Stimulating Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy with the Other </li></ul>...
Spawning Sustainable Opportunities <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic & Design </li></ul></ul...
Creating Political Capital <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing Human Collectives </li></ul></u...
Role of People’s Organisations <ul><li>Enhancing Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from and with Peers </li></u...
Why Does This Not Happen? <ul><li>An Uncaring Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Lack of Concern About Poverty </li></ul>...
Why …? <ul><li>No Appreciation of the Complexity of Rural Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated as an intellectually i...
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Padmashri Deep Joshi Seminar at IFMR

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Padmashri Deep Joshi Seminar at IFMR

  1. 1. Removing Poverty: Role of HR & POs Deep Joshi 29 January 2010
  2. 2. Conceptions & Strategies <ul><li>Classical View of Poverty: </li></ul><ul><li>A material or economic condition caused by past economic circumstance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of assets & income sources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of access to services, infrastructure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of access to technology, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Failure Exacerbates it for Some </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Trickle Down’ with Growth and </li></ul><ul><li>Market Correctives & Policy Tweaking to Create a Level Playing Field </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conceptions & Strategies <ul><li>An alternative Formulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of power in society key driver of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty may persist in a bustling economy, full of opportunity, e.g. USA </li></ul><ul><li>Power is a Function of Self-efficacy, Context and Influence – Person, Place & Position </li></ul><ul><li>This better describes the poverty scenario in India (and other places) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Person <ul><li>Historically and Structurally Isolated and/or Excluded Social Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They Lack Self-Efficacy – “I can also do it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Stranded Due to Structural Changes in Society, Economy & Polity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled Tribes and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled Castes in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans, African Americans, ‘Illegal Aliens” in USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women-headed Households in all Societies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unable to Receive Policies & Market Signals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Place <ul><li>Determines Assets/Endowments, Institutions and Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Highest in Rain-fed, Undulating, Hilly and Mountainous Regions (UHM Regions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Highest in Complex Ecologies – e. g. Drought and Flood-prone Places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Highest in Places with Weak Institutions </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Position <ul><li>The Political Currency of One’s Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to Influence Policy, Rules of the Game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Claims/Create New Claims, Set Priorities in Allocation of Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalit s, Tribes and Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Echelons in a Feudal set-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minorities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What the Data Says <ul><li>Is it Mumbo-Jumbo or Does the Data Support It? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendulkar Committee Findings (November 2009): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall BPL 37.2% (437 million) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban BPL 25.7% (92 million) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural BPL 41.8% (345 million ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Data Based on Census 2001 & 16% Decadal Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul>
  8. 8. Geography of Poverty: Place <ul><li>Poorest 5 States (Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural BPL (all>50%) – 34% of Country’s Rural BPL but 25% Rural Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total BPL – 31% but 22% of Country’s Population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poorest 8 States (Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tripura, UP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural BPL (all>42%) – 61% of Country’s Rural BPL but 51% Rural Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total BPL (all>38%) – 59% but 48% of Country’s Population </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Social/Ethnic Composition: Person & Position <ul><li>Tribes ~ 75% BPL (projected from old ratios) </li></ul><ul><li> ~ 8.5% Population but 17% BPL </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second Largest BPL among all Social Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dalit s ~ 66% BPL (projected from old ratios) </li></ul><ul><li>~ 16.5% Population but 29% BPL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest BPL among all Social Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ST+SC – ~ 25% Population but 45% BPL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National BPL % would drop 7.5% if SC+ST BPL :: to their population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural BPL would drop even more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No disaggregated data on Other Social Groups, Such as Women Headed Households </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Poor are also Heterogeneous <ul><li>Declining Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Stranded’ due to structural changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulate social and economic deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without hope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour and Practices Unsustainable in the Market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coping Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsist but stagnant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locked in unsustainable production systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited and Fragile Asset Base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Victims of Market Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Strategies Need to be Tailored to the Context </li></ul>
  11. 11. Journey Out of Poverty Access to entitlements Confidence – building (public goods) Extreme poor Most vulnerable Least resilient Least able to take risk Less vulnerable More resilient More able to take risk Assets, skills, access to entitlements (private and public goods) Coping poor BDS, access to market Financial services (private goods) Improving poor Range of Strategies
  12. 12. Segmented Strategies to Remove Poverty
  13. 13. Pathways Out of Poverty <ul><li>Enhancing Self-Efficacy/Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Capital (Agency) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating/Spawning Sustainable Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Capital (Assets, Services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Capital (Range of Skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Capital (Institutions/Organizations), Linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Resource Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice, Ability to Influence, Make Claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Capital (Institutions) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Enhancing/Stimulating Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy with the Other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the Poor as Responsible Citizens with Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Beneficiaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Clients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Helping/Nurturing Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote Inter-Dependence </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Spawning Sustainable Opportunities <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic & Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking with Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking with Resource Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of Human Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training/Skill Building </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Creating Political Capital <ul><li>Human Resources Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing Human Collectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spawning Solidarity Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Resource Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of Timing & Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying Power & Resilience </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Role of People’s Organisations <ul><li>Enhancing Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from and with Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance from Others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale Economies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Sharing Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Dealing with the Market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claiming & Creating Entitlements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructive Collectives & Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Against Tragedy of the Commons </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Why Does This Not Happen? <ul><li>An Uncaring Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Lack of Concern About Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No debate, discussion on poverty – 42% rural; 38% total; up 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% Tribes & 2/3rd dalit families BPL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 25% of population, carry 37.5% of poverty burden; rural even worse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State-ism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only state competent to do – it has scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only state can ensure fair distribution – is every where, concerned for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only state is accountable – Parliament, Elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct control preferred to regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India only country with a Minister for Community Development </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Why …? <ul><li>No Appreciation of the Complexity of Rural Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated as an intellectually inferiors activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a ‘holding operation’ till every one joins the urban industrial economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, no RD institute comparable to IITs, IIMs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Rational Conception of the India of Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Indian Society – Urban vs. Rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conception of ‘good life’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conception of Human Development </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You

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