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Migration definitions.


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Migration definitions.

  1. 1. MigrationMigration - The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, orwithin a State. It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever itslength, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants,and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification. (IOM – International Organizationfor Migration)MigrantMigrant - At the international level, no universally accepted definition for "migrant" exists. The termmigrant was usually understood to cover all cases where the decision to migrate was taken freely by theindividual concerned for reasons of "personal convenience" and without intervention of an externalcompelling factor; it therefore applied to persons, and family members, moving to another country orregion to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family.The United Nations defines migrant as an individual who has resided in a foreign country for more than oneyear irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means, regular or irregular, used tomigrate. Under such a definition, those travelling for shorter periods as tourists and businesspersons wouldnot be considered migrants. However, common usage includes certain kinds of shorter-term migrants, suchas seasonal farm-workers who travel for short periods to work planting or harvesting farm products. (IOM –International Organization for Migration)The term migrant can be understood as "any person who lives temporarily or permanently in a countrywhere he or she was not born, and has acquired some significant social ties to this country."1 However, thismay be a too narrow definition when considering that, according to some states policies, a person can beconsidered as a migrant even when s/he is born in the country. (UNESCO – United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural organization)Migrant is a wide-ranging term that covers people who move to a foreign country for a certain length oftime - not to be confused with short-term visitors such as tourists and traders. People migrate for a varietyof reasons. Migrants are fundamentally different from refugees and, thus, are treated very differentlyunder international law. Migrants, especially economic migrants, choose to move in order to improve theirlives. Refugees are forced to flee to save their lives or preserve their freedom. (UNHCR)ImmigrationImmigration - A process by which non-nationals move into a country for the purpose of settlement. (IOM –International Organization for Migration)ImmigrantAn immigrant is a person belonging to, or owing an allegiance to, one State and moving into another Statefor the purpose of settlement. (Global Migration Group)EmigrationEmigration - The act of departing or exiting from one State with a view to settling in another. (IOM –International Organization for Migration)
  2. 2. Temporary labour migrantTemporary labour migrants (also known as guest workers or overseas contract workers): people whomigrate for a limited period of time in order to take up employment and send money home. (UNESCO –United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization)Highly skilled and business migrantsHighly skilled and business migrants: people with qualifications as managers, executives, professionals,technicians or similar, who move within the internal labour markets of trans-national corporations andinternational organisations, or who seek employment through international labour markets for scarce skills.Many countries welcome such migrants and have special skilled and business migration programmes toencourage them to come. (UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization)Irregular migrantsIrregular migrants (or undocumented / illegal migrants): people who enter a country, usually in search ofemployment, without the necessary documents and permits. (UNESCO – United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural organization)Forced migrationForced migration: in a broader sense, this includes not only refugees and asylum seekers but also peopleforced to move due to external factors, such as environmental catastrophes or development projects. Thisform of migration has similar characteristics to displacement. (UNESCO – United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural organization)Forced Migration is a general term to describe a migratory movement in which an element of coercionexists, including threats to life and livelihood, arising from natural or man-made causes, such as movementsof refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by political instability, conflict,natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects. (GlobalMigration Group)Family reunificationFamily members (or family reunion / family reunification migrants): people sharing family ties joiningpeople who have already entered an immigration country under one of the above mentioned categories.Many countries recognise in principle the right to family reunion for legal migrants. Other countries,especially those with contract labour systems, deny the right to family reunion. (UNESCO – United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural organization)Return migrantsReturn migrants: people who return to their countries of origin after a period in another country. (UNESCO– United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization)
  3. 3. Transit MigrationTransit migration refers to the regular or irregular movement of a person through any State on any journeyto the State of employment or from the State of employment to the State of origin or the State of habitualresidence. (Global Migration Group)Return MigrationReturn migration refers to the “movement of a person returning to his/her country of origin or habitualresidence usually after spending at least one year in another country. This return may or may not bevoluntary. Return migration includes voluntary repatriation.” (Global Migration Group)Asylum seekerThe terms asylum-seeker and refugee are often confused: an asylum-seeker is someone who says he or sheis a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated. (UNHCR)RefugeeThe terms asylum-seeker and refugee are often confused: an asylum-seeker is someone who says he or sheis a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated. (UNHCR)Refugees are forced to flee to save their lives or preserve their freedom. (UNHCR)Roma and TravellerThe Roma, who count about 10 million people, are present in almost all Council of Europe member states.«Roma» means «man of the Roma ethnic group» or «husband», depending on the variant of Romani or theauthor. The Roma are – with the Sinti and Kale – one of the three main branches of the Roma (genericterm), a people originally from northern India. There are approximately 10 million Roma in Europe(estimates vary from 8 to 15 million; «approximately 10 million» seems best to us). They are mainly foundin the Balkans and in Central and Eastern Europe. The Travellers, who include both nomadic Roma and Sintiand others who are not of Roma origin but have a nomadic lifestyle (Irish Travellers, Swiss Yenish, SicilianCamminanti, etc.). (Council of Europe)