Culture and Cultural Studies (Intro) Sabilul Maarifah
CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIESWilliams (1983)• Culture: a tool to be used by people who can see its usefulness• It caused change in its usage and meaning as thinkers wish to do with it.Hoggart, William and Hall• British Cultural Studies is the crucial moment of cultural studies. They deploy and we explore the changing concern of it.
CULTURE (C)• Williams (1981,1983) Culture berhubungan dengan cultivation (growing crops). Lalu cakupannya diperluas kepada human mind. Sehingga muncul gagasan cultivated and cultured person.• Anthropological definition: a whole and distinctive way of life• (Arnold, 1960: 6) Culture is the best that has been thought and said in the world. Counterpoise to the anarchy of raw and uncultivated masses.
LEAVISISM• Icon ‘C’ of F.R and Q.D Leavis.• Leavisism shares with Arnold: culture is the high point of civilization and concern of educated minority.• England has organic community with lived culture of folk songs and folk dance which argued had been lost to ‘standardization and levelling down’ of industrialized mass culture.• Leavisism tasks:- Define and defend culture represented by canon of good work- Criticize the worst mass culture represented by advertising, films and pop fiction.
CULTURE IS ORDINARY• Raymond Williams:Culture is the arts and its values. Culture is concerned with tradition and social reproduction and also a matter of creativity and change.His concepts: values, norms and material.Culture relates to meaning people shares.Anthropological definition of culture criticized the banality of culture that being applied to industrialized culture.
CULTURALISM• Williams and Thompson:Men make their own history but not by their own please. It’s under circumstances given and transmitted from the past (dengan penyederhanaan)• Richard Hoggart (1957); The Uses of Literacy-An “Older” Order-Yielding Place To The New
• Edward Thompson:Culture as lived and ordinary and not socio- economic.• Raymond William:Culture as everyday meanings is part of expressive totality of social relation. The theory of culture is defined as the study of relationship between elements in a whole way of life.
• 3 levels of culture:-the lived culture of particular time and place-recorded culture-culture of the selective traditionExplore culture in terms:-Institutions of artistic and cultural production-formations or school-modes of production-identifications and forms of culture-the reproduction-the organization of ‘selective tradition’
• Culture is:-meaning generated by ordinary men and women-lived experiences of its participants-text and practices engaged in by people